Thomas W Riebold

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Fifteen horses with flexural deformity of the metacarpophalangeal joint were evaluated and their conditions were designated as mild, moderate, or severe. Evaluations were made on the basis of clinical signs and lesions seen on radiography. Horses with mild deformities were treated with corrective trimming and shoeing; those with moderate deformities were(More)
Anesthesia for llamas is similar to other domestic species, although adjustments in technique are required to allow for species variations. Xylazine (0.4-0.6 mg/kg) is well tolerated for sedation. The thiobarbiturates (8-10 mg/kg), ketamine (2.5-5.0 mg/kg), or combinations of guaifenesin and thiobarbiturates or guaifenesin and ketamine (to effect) can be(More)
Caudal epidural analgesia was achieved in 6 adult horses on 3 successive occasions at weekly intervals by injection of lidocaine, xylazine, and a combination of lidocaine/xylazine through indwelling epidural catheters. Analgesia was defined as a lack of response to pinprick and hemostat pressure in the skin of the perineal area. A significant (P < 0.05)(More)
For each of 3 separate evaluations, 6 fasted llamas (Lama glama) were sedated with xylazine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IV) and then 15 minutes later were given normal saline solution (5.0 ml, IV; control values), doxapram (2.2 mg/kg, IV), or 4-amino-pyridine (0.3 mg/kg, IV) and yohimbine (0.125 mg/kg, IV). After administration of 4-aminopyridine and(More)
The pharmacokinetics of theophylline and dyphylline were determined after IV administration in horses. In a preliminary experiment, the usual human dosage (milligram per kilogram) of each drug was given to 1 horse. Results were used to calculate dosages for a cross-over study, using 6 horses for each drug. Theophylline plasma concentrations decreased(More)
Arterial blood gas values, rate of pulmonary nitrogen washout, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output were determined during ventilation of six anesthetized horses, with a demand valve. The horses were allowed to ventilate spontaneously, or intermittent positive pressure ventilation was utilized. When compared with(More)
The objective was to determine how estradiol (0 vs 1 mg) and changes in the dosage of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH; 1,000 ng/steer vs 1 ng/kg body weight) and frequency of LHRH injection (25 vs 50 min) affect LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release in steers. In steers pretreated with estradiol peak concentrations of LH in serum(More)
Complications that can occur during and following anesthesia in ruminants and swine are discussed. Because many of these complications can be life-threatening, they must be avoided to allow provision of safe general anesthesia. Emphasis is placed on prevention and recognition of these complications and the institution of therapy when they do occur.
In conclusion, monitoring the depth of anesthesia plays an integral role in the anesthetic regimen. Although the use of sophisticated monitoring equipment has replaced some of the art of anesthesia and made assessment of depth of anesthesia more precise, a vigilant clinician still needs to serve as the animal's advocate. He or she must gather the data that(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane in llamas and alpacas. DESIGN Prospective study. Animals Six healthy adult llamas and six healthy adult alpacas. PROCEDURE Anesthesia was induced with desflurane delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal tube was inserted, and a port for continuous measurement of(More)