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PURPOSE The present studies assessed the possibility that high concentrations of oxalate may be toxic to renal epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS Subconfluent cultures of LLC-PK1 cells were exposed to oxalate, and the effects on cell morphology, membrane permeability to vital dyes, DNA integrity and cell density were assessed. RESULTS Oxalate(More)
These studies examined the effects of oxalate, a constituent of renal stones, on the growth of LLC-PK1 cells. Exposure to oxalate resulted in an initiation of DNA synthesis in serum-starved, growth-arrested cells as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The effects of oxalate were comparable to those observed in response to 10% serum. Moreover, exposure(More)
The mechanism of beta-adrenergic relaxation was investigated in isolated smooth muscle cells. Beta-adrenergic agents stimulate cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation, enhance Na+/K+ transport and induce relaxation. The stimulation of Na+/K+ transport is obligatory for relaxation, and we suggest that this stimulation induces relaxation through enhanced(More)
The Ca2+-selective, fluorescent dye, fura-2, was used to monitor ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake by membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. Micromolar fura-2 concentrations, added outside the vesicles, served as a high-affinity, low-capacity Ca2+ buffer. Changes in fura-2 fluorescence resulted from the decline in free Ca2+ concentration [((More)
Studies in various tissues, including the kidney, have demonstrated that toxins elicit apoptosis under certain conditions and necrosis under others. The nature of the response has important consequences for the injured tissue in that necrotic cells elicit inflammatory responses, whereas apoptotic cells do not. Thus, there has been considerable interest in(More)
Oxalate, the most common constituent of kidney stones, is an end product of metabolism that is excreted by the kidney. During excretion, oxalate is transported by a variety of transport systems and accumulates in renal tubular cells. This process has been considered benign; however, recent studies on LLC-PK1 cells suggested that high concentrations of(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to high levels of oxalate induces oxidant stress in renal epithelial cells and produces diverse changes in cell function, ranging from cell death to cellular adaptation, as evidenced by increased DNA synthesis, cellular proliferation, and induction of genes associated with remodeling and repair. These studies focused on cellular(More)
BACKGROUND In cultured renal epithelial cells, exposure to oxalate, a constituent of many kidney stones, elicits a cascade of responses that often leads to cell death. Oxalate toxicity is mediated via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a process that depends at least in part upon lipid signaling molecules that are generated through membrane(More)
Recent studies on LLC-PK1 cells demonstrated that oxalate, a simple dicarboxylic acid, acts as a mitogen for these renal epithelial cells. Exposure to oxalate initiates DNA synthesis, induces the expression of one of the early growth response genes c-myc and stimulates proliferation of quiescent cultures of LLC-PK1 cells. The present studies examined the(More)
Oxalate is a major component of the most common form of kidney stones--calcium oxalate stones. High concentrations of oxalate promote stone formation in two ways: (1) by providing urinary conditions favorable to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals, and (2) by inducing renal injury that generates cellular debris and promotes crystal nucleation and(More)