Thomas W. Gardiner

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1. Single-unit recordings were obtained from the subthalamic nuclei of three monkeys trained to perform a series of visuooculomotor tasks. The monkeys were trained to fixate on a spot of light on the screen (fixation task). When the spot was turned off and a target spot came on, they were required to fixate on the target quickly by making a saccade.(More)
Single-unit extracellular neuronal recordings were obtained from the globus pallidus (GP) and the neostriatum (NS) of rats while they performed a learned head movement in response to an auditory cue. In both GP and NS, units that altered their discharge rate in association with head movements and with the cues that triggered these head movements were(More)
Recordings were obtained from 146 neurons in the neostriatum of rhesus monkeys while they performed wrist movements in response to visual and vibratory cues. Of these, 75 putamen and 29 caudate neurons exhibited changes in firing rate that were temporally related to the onset of the wrist movements and that began prior to movement onset. This premovement(More)
Food and water restriction protocols are common in animal research, yet they often elicit discussion and controversy among institutional animal care and use committee members who review them. Determining a single standard by which all restriction protocols can be evaluated or performed may not be realistic. However, information about the physiologic and(More)
Single-unit activity was recorded from the neostriatum of unrestrained, behaving rats. Neuronal discharges were found to vary with specific motor responses, general changes in motor activity, or the presentation of orienting stimuli. In each case, however, 1.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine produced approximately equal numbers of excitations and inhibitions. A(More)
The spontaneous activity of striatal neurons was measured after dopamine (DA)-depleting brain lesions were produced in rats by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. The extent of DA depletion was determined using tissue punches from the same regions of striatum in which cell activity was recorded. Results showed that the spontaneous activity of Type II neurons(More)
Administration of lithium chloride, copper sulfate, and apomorphine to rats each stimulated the secretion of oxytocin (OT) and, to a much lesser degree, arginine vasopressin. These agents are assumed to cause visceral illness in rats because of their effectiveness in promoting the acquisition of learned taste aversions. CuSO4 had a greater effect on plasma(More)
Iontophoresis (20-80 nA) of ascorbic acid (AA) accelerated the firing rate of approximately one-third of the neurons tested in the anteromedial neostriatum of anesthetized rats. When administered to neostriatal neurons that were activated by the simultaneous ejection of glutamic acid (GLU), AA excited more than two-thirds of the cells examined, including(More)
In vivo recordings with electrochemically modified microvoltammetric electrodes revealed that several neuroleptic drugs, including haloperidol, clozapine, and thioridazine, blocked the rise in extracellular ascorbate produced by amphetamine in the neostriatum of urethane-anesthetized rats. This effect was also observed in animals that received a combined(More)
The behavioral response to amphetamine was monitored in rats that received simultaneous intraventricular infusions of saline or ascorbate. Both groups of animals displayed comparable responses, although ascorbate significantly delayed the onset of amphetamine-induced locomotion and rearing. In rats pretreated with a threshold dose of haloperidol (0.025(More)