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Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a(More)
Effective therapies for the treatment of obesity, a key element of metabolic syndrome, are urgently needed but currently lacking. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the conversion of saturated long-chain fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids, which are major components of triglycerides. In the current study, we(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) include three receptor subtypes encoded by separate genes: PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma. PPARgamma has been implicated as a mediator of adipocyte differentiation and the mechanism by which thiazolidinedione drugs exert in vivo insulin sensitization. Here we characterized novel,(More)
Antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and non-TZD compounds have been shown to serve as agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel non-TZD selective PPARgamma modulator (nTZDpa). nTZDpa bound potently to PPARgamma with high selectivity vs. PPARalpha or(More)
The thiazolidinediones are novel insulin sensitizers that serve as orally active antidiabetic agents, in rodents, nonhuman primates, and man. We have examined the effects of 4-week oral administration of three thiazolidinediones (AD-5075, BRL 49653, and CS-045) on plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations in obese hyperglycemic db/db mice. All three(More)
PPAR gamma is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor. Agonists of PPAR gamma, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), promote adipocyte differentiation and have insulin-sensitizing effects in animals and diabetic patients. Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays representing 6347 genes were employed to profile the gene expression responses of mature 3T3-L1(More)
A series of 2-aryloxy-2-methyl-propionic acid compounds and related analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their PPAR agonist activities. 2-[(5,7-Dipropyl-3-trifluoromethyl)-benzisoxazol-6-yloxy]-2-methylpropionic acid (4) was identified as a PPARalpha/gamma dual agonist with relative PPARalpha selectivity and demonstrated potent efficacy(More)
A series of benzimidazolone carboxylic acids and oxazolidinediones were designed and synthesized in search of selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARγMs) as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with improved safety profiles relative to rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, the currently marketed PPARγ full agonist drugs.(More)
The title compound, L-659,989, is a highly potent, competitive, and selective antagonist of the binding of [3H]PAF to its receptors in platelet membranes from rabbits and humans. It exhibits equilibrium inhibition constants for PAF binding of 1.1 nM (rabbit) to 9.0 nM (human), values that are at least 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of other PAF(More)
To address the hypothesis that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha has a role in obesity-associated insulin resistance or the regulation of in vivo lipid metabolism, mice with targeted disruption of the TNF-alpha gene were generated and studied. The absence of TNF-alpha protein in TNF-null (-/-) mice was confirmed. Lean or obese (gold-thioglucose(More)