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Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques were challenged with 10(7) PFU of a clinical isolate of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. Some of the animals developed a mild self-limited respiratory infection very different from that observed in humans with SARS. The macaque model as it currently exists will have limited utility in the study of SARS(More)
Alterations in plasma membrane function are induced by many cytopathic viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). These alterations can result in changes in the intracellular content of ions and other small molecules and can contribute to cytolysis and death of the infected cell. The pH-sensitive fluorescent probe(More)
Increases in intracellular concentrations of potassium ([K+]i) and sodium ([Na+]i) occur concomitantly with cytopathic effects induced in a CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cell line acutely infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This [K+]i increase was greater in cells infected by cytopathic HIV strains than in cells infected by less cytopathic strains. T(More)
The antiviral efficacy of interferons (IFNs) was evaluated using a vaccinia intranasal infection model in mice in this study. We provide evidence that intranasal administration of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma (days -1 to +3) resulted in 100 and 90% survival against a lethal respiratory vaccinia infection (8 LD50) in mice, respectively; whereas no animals in the(More)
Exposed epitopes of the spike protein may be recognized by neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV). A protein fragment (S-II) containing predicted epitopes of the spike protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The properly refolded protein fragment specifically bound to the surface of Vero cells.(More)
Intranasal inhalation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV) in the immunocompetent mouse strain 129SvEv resulted in infection of conducting airway epithelial cells followed by rapid clearance of virus from the lungs and the development of self-limited bronchiolitis. Animals resistant to the effects of interferons by virtue of a(More)
Prophylactic or therapeutic immunomodulation is an antigen-independent strategy that induces nonspecific immune system activation, thereby enhancing host defense to disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of prophylactic immunomodulation on the outcome of influenza virus infection using three bacterially derived immune-enhancing agents known for(More)
Two different severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) vaccine strategies were evaluated for their ability to protect against live SARS coronavirus (CoV) challenge in a murine model of infection. A whole killed (inactivated by beta-propiolactone) SARS-CoV vaccine and a combination of two adenovirus-based vectors, one expressing the nucleocapsid (N) and the(More)
Direct cellular entry of potentially useful polar compounds into cells is prevented by the hydrophobic barrier of the membrane. Toward circumventing this barrier, we used high throughput screening to identify a family of peptides that carry membrane-impermeant cargos across synthetic membranes. Here we characterize the plasma membrane translocation of these(More)