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Progress in public health and community-based interventions has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive evaluation framework appropriate to such programs. Multilevel interventions that incorporate policy, environmental, and individual components should be evaluated with measurements suited to their settings, goals, and purpose. In this commentary, the(More)
CONTEXT Alendronate sodium reduces fracture risk in postmenopausal women who have vertebral fractures, but its effects on fracture risk have not been studied for women without vertebral fractures. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that 4 years of alendronate would decrease the risk of clinical and vertebral fractures in women who have low bone mineral(More)
Mutants of Arabidopsis deficient in a major leaf phenylpropanoid ester, 2-O-sinapoyl-L-malate, were identified by thin-layer chromatographic screening of methanolic leaf extracts from several thousand mutagenized plants. Mutations at a locus designated SIN1 also eliminate accumulation of the sinapic acid esters characteristic of seed tissues. Because of(More)
BACKGROUND It is known that obesity, sodium intake, and alcohol consumption factors influence blood pressure. In this clinical trial, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, we assessed the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. METHODS We enrolled 459 adults with systolic blood pressures of less than 160 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressures of 80(More)
The general phenylpropanoid metabolism generates an enormous array of secondary metabolites based on the few intermediates of the shikimate pathway as the core unit. The resulting hydroxycinnamic acids and esters are amplified in several cascades by a combination of reductases, oxygenases, and transferases to result in an organ and developmentally specific(More)
Glycosyltransferases of plant secondary metabolism transfer nucleotide-diphosphate-activated sugars to low molecular weight substrates. Until recently, glycosyltransferases were thought to have only limited influence on the basic physiology of the plant. This view has changed. Glycosyltransferases might in fact have an important role in plant defense and(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to test a life span health behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. DESIGN The model(More)
BACKGROUND Many risk factors for hip fractures have been suggested but have not been evaluated in a comprehensive prospective study. METHODS We assessed potential risk factors, including bone mass, in 9516 white women 65 years of age or older who had had no previous hip fracture. We then followed these women at 4-month intervals for an average of 4.1(More)
Women with low bone density in the radius or calcaneus are at increased risk of hip fracture. To see whether bone density of the hip measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry is a better predictor of hip fracture than measurements of other bones, we assessed bone density at several sites in 8134 women aged 65 years or more. 65 women had hip fractures during a(More)
BACKGROUND The difficulties in accurately assessing pigmented skin lesions are ever present in practice. The recently described ABCD rule of dermatoscopy (skin surface microscopy at x10 magnification), based on the criteria asymmetry (A), border (B), color (C), and differential structure (D), improved diagnostic accuracy when applied retrospectively to(More)