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The cardiovascular and other actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) are mediated by AT(1) and AT(2) receptors, which are seven transmembrane glycoproteins with 30% sequence similarity. Most species express a single autosomal AT(1) gene, but two related AT(1A) and AT(1B) receptor genes are expressed in rodents. AT(1) receptors are predominantly coupled to(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) blockers (ARB) have been shown to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus by an unknown molecular mechanism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is the central regulator of insulin and glucose metabolism improving insulin sensitivity. We investigated the regulation of(More)
Selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma modulation is a new pharmacological approach that, based on selective receptor-cofactor interactions and target gene regulation, should result in potent insulin sensitization in the absence of PPARgamma-mediated adverse effects. Here, we characterize two angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs),(More)
From pharmacological investigations and clinical studies, it is known that ACE inhibitors exhibit additional local actions that are not related to hemodynamic changes and that cannot be explained only by interference with the renin-angiotensin system by means of an inhibition of ANG II formation. Because ACE is identical to kininase II, which inactivates(More)
The cardiocytes of mammalian cardiac atria contain granules very similar to those in endocrine cells. The number of these atrial granules is related directly to salt loading and blood volume. Furthermore, crude extracts of rat atria and granule preparations have powerful natriuretic and diuretic effects. These effects are mediated by peptides identified(More)
For quantification of gene-specific mRNA, quantitative real-time RT-PCR has become one of the most frequently used methods over the last few years. This article focuses on the issue of real-time PCR data analysis and its mathematical background, offering a general concept for efficient, fast and precise data analysis superior to the commonly used(More)
In the treatment of hypertension, physicians’ attitudes and practice patterns are receiving increased attention as contributors to poor blood pressure (BP) control. Thus, current use of antihypertensive drugs in primary care was analyzed and the association with selected physician and patient characteristics was assessed. The Hypertension and Diabetes Risk(More)
BACKGROUND Adipose tissue inflammation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). The present study examined the role of lymphocytes in adipose tissue inflammation and IR. METHODS AND RESULTS In a mouse model of obesity-mediated IR, high-fat diet (HFD) induced IR already after 5 weeks, which was associated with a marked(More)
In the present study we tested the hypothesis whether an angiotensin AT2 receptor-mediated stimulation of the bradykinin (BK)/nitric oxide (NO) system can account for the effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on aortic cGMP described previously in SHRSP. Adult SHRSP were treated for 4 hours with angiotensin II (ANG II) (30 ng/kg per min IV) or vehicle (0.9%(More)
We have described a rat model that responds to repetitive episodic hypoxia (12-s infusions of nitrogen into daytime sleeping chambers every 30 s, 7 h/day for 35 days) with an increase in diurnal systemic blood pressure. We hypothesized that afferent information from the peripheral chemoreceptors may be necessary to produce diurnal blood pressure elevation(More)