Thomas Thornton Macdonald

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BACKGROUND/AIMS In our experience with the acute murine dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) model of experimental colitis, we noted both interstrain and interanimal variations in daily water consumption. One might critically question whether observed differences in injuries are just a dose dependency phenomenon reflecting variations in DSS intake. To clarify this(More)
This study determined the location and tissue density of cells immunoreactive for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in intestinal specimens from 24 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (15 with Crohn's disease, nine with ulcerative colitis) and 11 controls. There was significantly increased density of TNF alpha immunoreactive cells in the(More)
Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric. It is widely used as a kitchen spice and food colorant throughout India, Asia and the Western world. Curcumin is a major constituent of curry powder, to which it imparts its characteristic yellow colour. For over 4000 years, curcumin has been used in traditional Asian and African medicine to treat a wide(More)
Measurement of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is difficult. The best available methods are complex and time consuming, but it may be possible to use tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) concentration in stool as a marker of disease activity. We measured TNF alpha concentrations in stool samples from normal children, infants(More)
Citrobacter rodentium is a classically noninvasive pathogen of mice that is similar to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in man. Following oral infection of young mice, the organism colonizes the distal colon, and within 1 week the colonic mucosa doubles in thickness and there is massive epithelial cell hyperplasia. Since T-cell responses in mouse(More)
Claudin proteins comprise a recently described family of tight junction proteins that differentially regulate paracellular permeability. Since other tight junction proteins show alterations in distribution or expression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) we assessed expression of claudins (CL) 2, 3 and 4 in IBD. CL 2 was strongly expressed along the(More)
The major classes of enteric bacteria harbour a conserved core genomic structure, common to both commensal and pathogenic strains, that is most likely optimized to a life style involving colonization of the host intestine and transmission via the environment. In pathogenic bacteria this core genome framework is decorated with novel genetic islands that are(More)
Gut inflammation occurring in patients with Crohn's disease and patients with ulcerative colitis has been traditionally associated with an exaggerated Th1 or Th2 cell response, respectively. However, recent studies have shown that in both inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) there is also enhanced synthesis of cytokines made by a distinct subset of T helper(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Cytokines are thought to be important in mediating tissue damage in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Many of the in vivo activities of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) match the changes found in IBD, but its importance is controversial. METHODS A sensitive, reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to determine the frequency of(More)