Thomas T. Wheeler

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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
Besides providing nutrition to the newborn, milk also protects the neonate and the mammary gland against infection. As well as the six major proteins, bovine milk contains minor proteins, not all of which have been characterized. In this study, we have subjected bovine skim milk, whey, and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fractions to both direct liquid(More)
Colostrum and milk provide a complete diet for the neonate. In ruminants, colostrum is also the sole source of initial acquired immunity for the offspring. Milk therefore plays an important role in mammalian host defense. In colostrum, the concentration of immunoglobulins is particularly high, with IgG being the major immunoglobulin class present in(More)
Purified RNA transcripts from venom glands dissected from the parasitoid wasp Microctonus hyperodae were copied, cloned and sequenced using traditional dideoxy sequencing methods. Using mass spectrometry analysis of the trypsinised PAGE gel protein bands we identified the RNA transcripts for the 3 most abundant proteins found in the venom and hence obtained(More)
Saliva influences rumen function in cattle, yet the biochemical role for most of the bovine salivary proteins (BSPs) has yet to be established. Two cDNAs (BSP30a and BSP30b) from bovine parotid salivary gland were cloned and sequenced, each coding for alternate forms of a prominent protein in bovine saliva. The BSP30 cDNAs share 96% sequence identity with(More)
The family of BPI-like proteins are thought to play a role in innate immunity of the airways and oral cavity. They have similarities with bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), an important host defence molecule in mammals, in the nucleotide sequence of their mRNAs, organisation of exons and their predicted protein structure. We compared the(More)
We have used cDNA microarray analysis to identify genes that play a role in bovine mammary involution. Involution was induced by termination of milking, and alveolar tissue was collected from 48 nonpregnant Friesian cows in mid lactation sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 72, and 192 h (n = 6/group) postmilking. The most highly upregulated genes were those(More)
Key developments in the understanding of the immune functions of milk and colostrum are reviewed, focusing on their proteinaceous components. The topics covered include the immunoglobulins, immune cells, immunomodulatory substances, and antimicrobial proteins. The contributions of new technologies and the introduction of fresh approaches from other fields(More)
Cattle and other ruminants have evolved the ability to derive most of their metabolic energy requirement from otherwise indigestible plant matter through a symbiotic relationship with plant fibre degrading microbes within a specialised fermentation chamber, the rumen. The genetic changes underlying the evolution of the ruminant lifestyle are poorly(More)
The p100 coactivator, first identified as a coactivator of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded transcription factor, EBNA-2, in cultured cells, interacts with a number of transcription factors. However, the role of p100 in animals is unclear. We found that the abundance of p100 is closely associated with the lactating state in mammary tissue of mice and cows.(More)