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Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB(More)
Designed as a high-sensitivity gamma-ray observatory, the Fermi Large Area Telescope is also an electron detector with a large acceptance exceeding 2 m;{2} sr at 300 GeV. Building on the gamma-ray analysis, we have developed an efficient electron detection strategy which provides sufficient background rejection for measurement of the steeply falling(More)
BACKGROUND The factors that lead to patients failing multiple anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are not well understood. HYPOTHESIS Multiple-revision ACL reconstruction will have different characteristics than first-time revision in terms of previous and current graft selection, mode of failure, chondral/meniscal injuries, and surgical(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased morbidity across the cardiopulmonary disease spectrum. Based primarily on expert consensus opinion, PH is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mm Hg. Although mPAP levels below this threshold are common among populations at risk for PH, the relevance of mPAP <25 mm Hg to(More)
Population-based samples of smokers are necessary for tobacco behavior monitoring and surveillance and for evaluating tobacco control programs and policies. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of a simple, one-question screener as a tool to maximize efficiency of obtaining a population representative sample of current smokers. This analysis was(More)
Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any(More)
The Fermi-LAT experiment recently reported high precision measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons-plus-positrons (CRE) between 20 GeV and 1 TeV. The spectrum shows no prominent spectral features, and is significantly harder than that inferred from several previous experiments. We show that the interpretation of the reported data, especially(More)
Isolated invariant sets and their associated Conley indices are valuable tools for studying dynamical systems and their global invariant structures. Through their design, they aim to capture invariant behavior which is robust under small perturbations, and this in turn makes them amenable to a computational treatment. Over the years, a number of algorithms(More)
Invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) combines full central hemodynamic assessment with continuous measurements of pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation to help in understanding the pathophysiology underpinning unexplained exertional intolerance. There is increasing evidence to support the use of iCPET as a key methodology for diagnosing heart(More)