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Salmonella typhimurium can colonize the gut, invade intestinal tissues, and cause enterocolitis. In vitro studies suggest different mechanisms leading to mucosal inflammation, including 1) direct modulation of proinflammatory signaling by bacterial type III effector proteins and 2) disruption or penetration of the intestinal epithelium so that penetrating(More)
Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to sample and present commensal bacteria to the gut-associated immune system to maintain immune homeostasis. How antigen sampling pathways handle intestinal pathogens remains elusive. We present a murine colitogenic Salmonella infection model that is highly dependent on DCs. Conditional DC depletion experiments(More)
Severe elevation of red blood cell number is often associated with hypertension and thromboembolism resulting in severe cardiovascular complications. However, some individuals such as high altitude dwellers cope well with an increased hematocrit level. We analyzed adaptive mechanisms to excessive erythrocytosis in our transgenic (tg) mice that, due to(More)
Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium is a common cause of gastrointestinal infections. The host's innate immune system and a complex set of Salmonella virulence factors are thought to contribute to enteric disease. The serovar Typhimurium virulence factors have been studied extensively by using tissue culture assays, and bovine infection(More)
Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) activates the transcription of metallothionein genes and other target genes in response to heavy metal load and other stresses such as hypoxia and oxidative stress. It also has an essential function during embryogenesis: targeted disruption of Mtf1 in the mouse results in lethal liver degeneration on day 14 of(More)
BACKGROUND Hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction due to excessive production of reactive oxygen species is a major trigger of atherogenesis. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated by oxidative stress and play a key role in atherogenesis and inflammation. We investigated whether JNK2 deletion protects from(More)
To investigate the consequences of inborn excessive erythrocytosis, we made use of our transgenic mouse line (tg6) that constitutively overexpresses erythropoietin (Epo) in a hypoxia-independent manner, thereby reaching hematocrit levels of up to 0.89. We detected expression of human Epo in the brain and, to a lesser extent, in the lung but not in the(More)
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