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Physiological cholestasis linked to immature hepatobiliary transport systems for organic anions occurs in rat and human neonates. In utero, the placenta facilitates vectorial transfer of certain fetal-derived solutes to the maternal circulation for elimination. We compared the ontogenesis of organic anion transporters in the placenta and the fetal liver of(More)
Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to sample and present commensal bacteria to the gut-associated immune system to maintain immune homeostasis. How antigen sampling pathways handle intestinal pathogens remains elusive. We present a murine colitogenic Salmonella infection model that is highly dependent on DCs. Conditional DC depletion experiments(More)
Salmonella typhimurium can colonize the gut, invade intestinal tissues, and cause enterocolitis. In vitro studies suggest different mechanisms leading to mucosal inflammation, including 1) direct modulation of proinflammatory signaling by bacterial type III effector proteins and 2) disruption or penetration of the intestinal epithelium so that penetrating(More)
BACKGROUND Hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction due to excessive production of reactive oxygen species is a major trigger of atherogenesis. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated by oxidative stress and play a key role in atherogenesis and inflammation. We investigated whether JNK2 deletion protects from(More)
Severe elevation of red blood cell number is often associated with hypertension and thromboembolism resulting in severe cardiovascular complications. However, some individuals such as high altitude dwellers cope well with an increased hematocrit level. We analyzed adaptive mechanisms to excessive erythrocytosis in our transgenic (tg) mice that, due to(More)
Many genetic diseases have been linked to the dysfunction of primary cilia, which occur nearly ubiquitously in the body and act as solitary cellular mechanosensory organelles. The list of clinical manifestations and affected tissues in cilia-related disorders (ciliopathies) such as nephronophthisis is broad and has been attributed to the wide expression(More)
Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium is a common cause of gastrointestinal infections. The host's innate immune system and a complex set of Salmonella virulence factors are thought to contribute to enteric disease. The serovar Typhimurium virulence factors have been studied extensively by using tissue culture assays, and bovine infection(More)
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and a platelet storage pool deficiency. Some patients also develop fatal pulmonary fibrosis and some have granulomatous colitis. Six human genes HPS1, ADB3A, HPS3, HPS4, HPS5, and HPS6 have been identified as cause of the six known subtypes of(More)
The endothelium controls blood flow and pressure by releasing several vasoactive factors, among them the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1). Although increased NO levels have been found in excessive erythrocytosis, little is known concerning ET-1 expression in this condition. Thus, we examined the endothelin(More)
BACKGROUND Male transgenic mice expressing the human RAS gene on an FVB strain background develop adenocarcinoma of the breast between 7 and 8 weeks of age. We have utilized this mammary tumour model to investigate apoptotic responses following photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a chlorin-based, water-soluble photosensitizer. METHODS Detection of apoptosis(More)