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Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal cytokine regulating erythropoiesis through its receptor, EPOR. Interestingly, EPORs are also found on immune cells with incompletely understood functions. Here, we show that EPO inhibits the induction of proinflammatory genes including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase in activated(More)
BACKGROUND Hepcidin, a liver-derived peptide induced by iron overload and inflammation, is a major regulator of iron homeostasis. As hepcidin decreases gastrointestinal iron absorption and recirculation from monocytes, over-expression is associated with the development of anaemia. METHODS We studied the associations between circulating hepcidin levels and(More)
The anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is characterized by macrophage iron retention induced by cytokines and the master regulator hepcidin. Hepcidin controls cellular iron efflux on binding to the iron export protein ferroportin. Many patients, however, present with both ACD and iron deficiency anemia (ACD/IDA), the latter resulting from chronic blood loss.(More)
Anemia of chronic inflammation (ACI) is the most frequent anemia in hospitalized patients and is associated with significant morbidity. A major underlying mechanism of ACI is the retention of iron within cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), thus making the metal unavailable for efficient erythropoiesis. This reticuloendothelial iron sequestration(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a multi-functional cytokine, which exerts erythropoietic effects but also carries anti-apoptotic and immune-modulatory activities upon binding to two distinct receptors which are expressed on erythroid, parenchymal and immune cells, respectively. Whereas EPO ameliorates hemolytic anemia in malaria or trypanosomiasis and improves the(More)
OBJECTIVES Copper has a role in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial function, and copper deficiency has been linked to atherogenic dyslipidemia. We aimed to investigate the potential role of copper availability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS Patients with NAFLD (n=124) were compared to(More)
Aspergillus terreus (A. terreus) is of serious concern because of a high propensity to dissemination and in vitro and in vivo resistance to Amphotericin B (AmB). The underlying molecular mechanism of AmB is not known yet and here we want to explore whether fungal heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is involved in polyene resistance in A. terreus. AmB-susceptible(More)
Recently, the iron and erythropoiesis-controlled growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has been shown to inhibit the expression of hepcidin in beta-thalassaemia patients, thereby increasing iron absorption despite iron overload. To access the diagnostic and pathogenic impact of GDF15 in inflammatory anaemia the association of GDF15 expression with serum(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypoxia affects body iron homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. DESIGN Using a standardised hypoxia chamber, 23 healthy volunteers were subjected to hypoxic conditions, equivalent to an altitude of 5600 m, for 6 h. Subsequent experiments were performed in C57BL/6 mice, CREB-H knockout mice, primary(More)
Anemia of chronic disease is a multifactorial disorder, resulting mainly from inflammation-driven reticuloendothelial iron retention, impaired erythropoiesis, and reduced biological activity of erythropoietin. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have been used for the treatment of anemia of chronic disease, although with varying response rates and potential(More)