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The cerebral activation during bicycle movements was investigated by oxygen-15-labelled H2O positron emission tomography (PET) in seven healthy human subjects. Compared to rest active bicycling significantly activated sites bilaterally in the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor cortex (SMA) as well as the anterior part(More)
The EMG response and the mechanical response to 2 degree stretch of the human anterior tibial muscle was studied during contractions ranging from 0% to 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The EMG response showed three distinct peaks M1, M2, and M3 with peak latencies of 59 ms, 86 ms, and 120 ms respectively. At low background torques M1 dominated(More)
A mobile ankle and knee perturbator has been developed. It consists of a functional joint with an integrated clutch. Four Bowden wires connect the joint to a powerful motor and a double pneumatic cylinder. When needed during any time of the gait cycle, it is possible to impose an ankle rotation by engaging the clutch and rotating the ankle or knee joint(More)
The magnocellular red nucleus (RNm) becomes highly active when a monkey reaches to grasp an object. However, the only spike-triggered averaging studies of the RNm to date have been restricted to a simple wrist tracking paradigm and electromyographic (EMG) measurements of muscles of the forearm. We have now measured EMG signals from a large number of muscles(More)
The modulation of the short latency stretch reflex of the soleus muscle during walking was investigated in seven spastic multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and nine healthy control subjects. Ankle joint stretches were applied by a system which can rotate that ankle joint in any phase of the step cycle during treadmill walking. The torque related to the muscle(More)
The size of soleus H-reflexes and short-latency stretch reflexes was measured at different levels of plantar flexion or co-contraction (simultaneous activation of dorsi- and plantar flexors) in seven healthy subjects. In four of seven subjects the short-latency stretc reflex was smaller during weak co-contraction than during isolated plantar flexion at(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of proprioceptive feedback to the amplitude modulation of the soleus muscle activity during human walking. We have previously shown that slow-velocity, small-amplitude ankle dorsiflexion enhancements and reductions applied during the stance phase of the step cycle generate, respectively, increments(More)
We present findings on the way in which to use electromyographic (EMG) measurements from muscles acting on the knee in planning rehabilitation of subjects after rupture of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). ACL subjects demonstrated an earlier recruitment and a tendency to prolonged activity in muscles around the deficient knee as compared with a control(More)
In comparison to the H-reflex, the task dependency of the human stretch reflex during locomotive and postural tasks has not received a great deal of attention in the literature. The few studies on reflex task dependency that have been performed to date have concentrated on either the group Ia mediated H-reflex or the short latency stretch reflex. In the(More)
Selective and dynamically co-ordinated functional electrical stimulation (FES) of paralysed/paretic limbs in upper motor neuron lesioned people depends on optimal contact at the neural interface. Implanted nerve cuff electrodes may form a stable electrical neural interface, but may also inflict nerve damage. In this study the immediate and long-term effects(More)