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The integrity of the central efferent motor pathways to the diaphragm can be assessed by using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure the latency of the corresponding motor evoked potentials with surface electrodes. Because transcranial magnetic stimulation does not activate the diaphragm alone, signal contamination is a potential problem. To evaluate(More)
Dyspnea, a leading respiratory symptom, shares many clinical, physiological, and psychological features with pain. Both activate similar brain areas. The neural mechanisms of dyspnea are less well described than those of pain. The present research tested the hypothesis of common pathways between the two sensations. Six healthy men (age 30-40 yr) were(More)
Phrenic nerve stimulation, electrical (ES) or from cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS), allows one to assess the diaphragm contractile properties and the conduction time of the phrenic nerve (PNCT) through recording of an electromyographic response, traditionally by using surface electrodes. Because of the coactivation of extradiaphragmatic muscles, signal(More)
The comparatively low compliance of the mammalian lung results in an evolutionary dilemma: the origin and evolution of this bronchoalveolar lung into a high-performance gas-exchange organ results in a high work of breathing that cannot be achieved without the coupled evolution of a muscular diaphragm. However, despite over 400 years of research into(More)
Phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) can assess airflow dynamics of the upper airway (UA) during wakefulness in man. Using PNS, we aimed to assess the impact of neck flexion and mouth opening in promoting UA unstability. Measurements were made during nasal breathing in seven healthy subjects (ages = 23-39 yr; one woman). Surface diaphragm electromyogram,(More)
Human ventilation is aperiodic, exhibiting a breath-by-breath variability and a complexity of which the characteristics may be interesting physiologically and clinically. In the present study, we tested the ability of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) to describe these properties. Indeed, RIP does not have the effects on ventilation described with(More)
Respiratory sensations may rely in part on cortical integration of respiratory afferent information. In an attempt to study such projections, we recorded evoked potentials at scalp and cervical sites in 10 normal volunteers undergoing transcutaneous phrenic stimulation (0.1-ms square pulses, intensity liminal for diaphragmatic activation, series of 600(More)
Background. Age is an important prognostic factor in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), but it is not as important as illness severity. However, age seems to remain an important independent triage criterion for ICU admission, and 90 years of age seems to represent a psychological barrier for many ICU physicians. The aim of this preliminary(More)
Expulsive maneuvers (EMs) caused by simultaneous contraction of diaphragm and abdominal muscles shift substantial quantities of blood from the splanchnic circulation to the extremities. This suggests that the diaphragm assisted by abdominal muscles might accomplish ventilation and circulation simultaneously by repeated EMs. We tested this hypothesis in(More)
Diaphragm pacing is an alternative to mechanical ventilation in patients with high cervical cord damage (>C4 dermatome). It brings clinical benefits and reduces health costs [1–3]. It is also indicated in certain cases of central hypoventilation [4]. Two types of diaphragm pacing devices are commercially available. With intrathoracic phrenic stimulation,(More)