Thomas Schwend

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ZP3, a major component of the zona pellucida (ZP) matrix coating mammalian eggs, is essential for fertilization by acting as sperm receptor. By retaining a propeptide that contains a polymerization-blocking external hydrophobic patch (EHP), we determined the crystal structure of an avian homolog of ZP3 at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure unveils the fold of(More)
Species-specific recognition between the egg extracellular matrix (zona pellucida) and sperm is the first, crucial step of mammalian fertilization. Zona pellucida filament components ZP3 and ZP2 act as sperm receptors, and mice lacking either of the corresponding genes produce oocytes without a zona pellucida and are completely infertile. Like their(More)
The human mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) is a 39-kDa protein that terminates transcription at the 3'-end of the 16 S rRNA gene and thereby controls expression of the ribosomal transcription unit of mitochondrial DNA. The transcription termination activity of human mTERF has been notoriously difficult to study in vitro, and it has(More)
Several papers report that the colon is one of the tissues regulated by estrogen receptor (ER)beta. To better understand the physiological role of ERbeta in colonic tissue, we have compared morphology, proliferation, and differentiation of colonic epithelium in ERbeta-/- mice and WT littermates. BrdUrd labeling revealed that the number of proliferating(More)
Metal and metal oxide chelating-based phosphopeptide enrichment technologies provide powerful tools for the in-depth profiling of phosphoproteomes. One weakness inherent to current enrichment strategies is poor binding of phosphopeptides containing multiple basic residues. The problem is exacerbated when strong cation exchange (SCX) is used for(More)
Recently, Yang et al. reported that estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is a mitochondrial protein rather than a nuclear receptor. Because this claim would lead to a significant change in our understanding of estrogen signaling, we have attempted to reproduce the MALDI-TOF data of Yang et al. We separated proteins extracted from mouse liver mitochondria by(More)
Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is a disease seen mostly in women, and symptoms tend to be worse premenopausally or during ovulation. The four cardinal symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are bladder pain, urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Estrogen has been implicated in the etiology of this disease, but the role of the(More)
Uromodulin (or Tamm-Horsfall protein) is the most abundant protein in human urine under physiological conditions. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of uromodulin secretion. By extensive Mass Spectrometry analyses we mapped the C-termini of human and murine urinary proteins demonstrating that urinary uromodulin is generated by a conserved(More)
Two estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) are found throughout the mammary gland. Evidence indicates that, while ERalpha transduces proliferation signals, ERbeta opposes this effect and is necessary for epithelial differentiation. Using mouse mammary epithelial cells, we have previously shown that activation of ERbeta opposes ERalpha-induced proliferation(More)
The estrogen receptors (ERs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that activate transcription by binding to estrogen response elements. Estrogen-mediated effects are tissue- and cell type-specific, determined by the cofactor recruitment to the ERs among other factors. To understand these differences in estrogen action, it is important to identify the(More)