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BACKGROUND The weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19(th) century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in(More)
In biomedical research, a huge variety of different techniques is currently available for the structural examination of small specimens, including conventional light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), microscopic X-ray computed tomography (microCT), and many others. Since every imaging method(More)
BACKGROUND In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only(More)
Nemertea is one of the least studied lophotrochozoan phyla concerning neurogenesis. The sparse data available do not unambiguously allow for answering questions with respect to the neural groundplan of the phylum or the fate of larval neural structures during metamorphosis. In order to contribute to this issue, we studied neurotransmitter distribution(More)
Matrotrophy or extraembryonic nutrition – transfer of nutrients from mother to embryo during gestation – is well known and thoroughly studied among vertebrates, but still poorly understood in invertebrates. The current paper focuses on the anatomy and ultrastructure of the oogenesis and placentotrophy as well as formation of the brood chamber (ovicell) in(More)
BACKGROUND Bryozoans represent a large lophotrochozoan phylum with controversially discussed phylogenetic position and in group relationships. Developmental processes during the budding of bryozoans are in need for revision. Just recently a study on a phylactolaemate bryozoan gave a comprehensive basis for further comparisons among bryozoans. The aim of(More)
The phylogenetic position of the Ectoprocta within the Lophotrochozoa is discussed controversially. For gaining more insight into ectoproct relationships and comparing it with other potentially related phyla, we analysed the myoanatomy and serotonergic nervous system of adult representatives of the Phylactolaemata (Plumatella emarginata,(More)
Comparatively few data are available concerning the structure of the adult nervous system in the Ectoprocta or Bryozoa. In contrast to all other ectoprocts, the cerebral ganglion of phylactolaemates contains a central fluid-filled lumen surrounded by a neuroepithelium. Preliminary observations have shown a small lumen within the cerebral ganglion of the(More)
The phylogenetic position of bryozoans has been disputed for decades, and molecular phylogenetic analyzes have not unequivocally clarified their position within the Bilateria. As probably the most basal bryozoans, Phylactolaemata is the most promising taxon for large-scale phylogenetic comparisons. These comparisons require extending the morphological and(More)
BACKGROUND Ectoprocta is a large lophotrochozoan clade of colonial suspension feeders comprising over 5.000 extant species. Their phylogenetic position within the Lophotrochzoa remains controversially discussed, but also the internal relationships of the major ectoproct subclades -Phylactolaemata, Stenolaemata, and Gymnolaemata - remains elusive. To gain(More)