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Visual stimuli may remain invisible but nevertheless produce strong and reliable effects on subsequent actions. How well features of a masked prime are perceived depends crucially on its physical parameters and those of the mask. We manipulated the visibility of masked stimuli and contrasted it with their influence on the speed of motor actions, comparing(More)
Current theories of dual visual systems suggest that color is processed in a ventral cortical stream that eventually gives rise to visual awareness but is only indirectly involved in visuomotor control mediated by the dorsal stream. If the dorsal stream is indeed less sensitive to color than the ventral stream, color stimuli blocked from awareness by visual(More)
Yeast cells can initiate bud formation at the G1/S transition in a cue-independent manner. Here, we investigate the dynamic nature of the polar cap and the regulation of the GTPase Cdc42 in the establishment of cell polarity. Using analysis of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that Cdc42 exchanged rapidly between the polar caps and(More)
To demonstrate unconscious cognition, researchers commonly compare a direct measure (D) of awareness for a critical stimulus with an indirect measure (I) showing that the stimulus was cognitively processed at all. We discuss and empirically demonstrate three types of dissociation with distinct appearances in D-I plots, in which direct and indirect effects(More)
We tested the influence of two horizontally aligned visual landmarks on pointing movements to memorized targets, to investigate whether the visuomotor system can make use of an egocentric representation unaffected by visual context. The endpoints of pointing movements were systematically distorted toward the nearest visual landmark, indicating that spatial(More)
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient(More)
This paper presents FOLKER, an annotation tool developed for the efficient transcription of natural, multi-party interaction in a conversation analysis framework. FOLKER is being developed at the Institute for German Language in and for the FOLK project, whose aim is the construction of a large corpus of spoken present-day German, to be used for research(More)
A key function of blood vessels, to supply oxygen, is impaired in tumors because of abnormalities in their endothelial lining. PHD proteins serve as oxygen sensors and may regulate oxygen delivery. We therefore studied the role of endothelial PHD2 in vessel shaping by implanting tumors in PHD2(+/-) mice. Haplodeficiency of PHD2 did not affect tumor vessel(More)
Single-cell recordings have indicated that visual stimuli elicit rapid waves of neuronal activation that propagate so fast that they might be free of intracortical feedback. Here, the time course of feedforward activation was traced by measuring pointing responses to color targets preceded by color primes initiating either the same or opposite response. The(More)
Side chains of Lys/Arg near transmembrane domain (TMD) membrane-water interfaces can 'snorkel', placing their positive charge near negatively charged phospholipid head groups; however, snorkelling's functional effects are obscure. Integrin β TMDs have such conserved basic amino acids. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to show that integrin β(3)(Lys 716) helps(More)