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The evolution of Western medicine since World War II has resulted in the emergence of new practices based on the direct interaction of biology and medicine. The post-war realignment of biology and medicine has been accompanied by the emergence of a new type of objectivity, regulatory objectivity, that is based on the systematic recourse to the collective(More)
A chimeric lhcb gene, coding for Lhcb, a higher plant chlorophyll a/b-binding light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII), was constructed using the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 psbA3 promoter and a modified lhcb gene from pea. This construct drives synthesis of full-length, mature Lhcb under the control of the strong psbA3 promoter that usually drives(More)
Neurosurgery, in particular surgery of the brain, was recognized as one of the most spectacular transgressions of the traditional limits of surgical work. With their audacious, technically demanding, laboratory-based, and highly promising new interventions, prominent neurosurgeons were primary candidates for the Nobel Prize. Accordingly, neurosurgical(More)
The Nobel Prize Archive for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm has recently gained scholarly attention among historians [8, 12, 22], but it has not yet been sufficiently examined by historians of physiology [13]. Studies of Nobel Prize nominations of renowned physiologists and reports by the Nobel Committee can help reconstructing many of the important(More)
Clinical practice guidelines are now ubiquitous. This article describes the emergence of such guidelines in a way that differs from the two dominant explanations, one focusing on administrative cost-cutting and the other on the need to protect collective professional autonomy. Instead, this article argues that the spread of guidelines represents a new(More)
In 1883 the Swiss surgeon and later Nobel laureate Theodor Kocher (1841-1917) made a journey to the Valais and Bernese Oberland. The purpose of the expedition was to see cases of cretinism which occurred in this area. Earlier in the same year Kocher had noticed that he had inadvertently created "artificial cretins" by total ablation of the thyroid gland.(More)
This paper examines how, over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the appreciation of skill in surgery shifted in characteristic ways. Skill is a problematic category in surgery. Its evaluation is embedded into wider cultural expectations and evaluations, which changed over time. The paper examines the discussions about surgical(More)
Theodor Kocher (1909), Alexis Carrel (1912), Antonio Egas Moniz (1949) and Joseph E. Murray (1990) received Nobel Prizes for their accomplishments in the field of surgery. This essay puts these achievements in the context of the history of surgery, in particular its recognition of a field of modern medicine. It characterizes the view of the body that is(More)
  • T Schlich
  • 2000
Robert Koch based his claim that specific microorganisms cause particular diseases on laboratory studies. This paper examines how Koch set up a plausible line of argument by using special methods of representing bacteria. One kind of representation consisted in making the bacteria visible; the other mode of representation was based on disease phenomena.(More)