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The evolution of Western medicine since World War II has resulted in the emergence of new practices based on the direct interaction of biology and medicine. The post-war realignment of biology and medicine has been accompanied by the emergence of a new type of objectivity, regulatory objectivity, that is based on the systematic recourse to the collective(More)
A chimeric lhcb gene, coding for Lhcb, a higher plant chlorophyll a/b-binding light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII), was constructed using the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 psbA3 promoter and a modified lhcb gene from pea. This construct drives synthesis of full-length, mature Lhcb under the control of the strong psbA3 promoter that usually drives(More)
Clinical practice guidelines are now ubiquitous. This article describes the emergence of such guidelines in a way that differs from the two dominant explanations, one focusing on administrative cost-cutting and the other on the need to protect collective professional autonomy. Instead, this article argues that the spread of guidelines represents a new(More)
In 1883 the Swiss surgeon and later Nobel laureate Theodor Kocher (1841-1917) made a journey to the Valais and Bernese Oberland. The purpose of the expedition was to see cases of cretinism which occurred in this area. Earlier in the same year Kocher had noticed that he had inadvertently created "artificial cretins" by total ablation of the thyroid gland.(More)
Neurosurgery, in particular surgery of the brain, was recognized as one of the most spectacular transgressions of the traditional limits of surgical work. With their audacious, technically demanding, laboratory-based, and highly promising new interventions, prominent neurosurgeons were primary candidates for the Nobel Prize. Accordingly, neurosurgical(More)
Theodor Kocher (1909), Alexis Carrel (1912), Antonio Egas Moniz (1949) and Joseph E. Murray (1990) received Nobel Prizes for their accomplishments in the field of surgery. This essay puts these achievements in the context of the history of surgery, in particular its recognition of a field of modern medicine. It characterizes the view of the body that is(More)
  • T Schlich
  • 2000
Robert Koch based his claim that specific microorganisms cause particular diseases on laboratory studies. This paper examines how Koch set up a plausible line of argument by using special methods of representing bacteria. One kind of representation consisted in making the bacteria visible; the other mode of representation was based on disease phenomena.(More)
By serving as experimental models for human disease, animals have been instrumental to constructing biomedical knowledge. On the other hand, animals themselves increasingly benefit from biomedical expertise and technologies, as patients in their own right. Healthy companion animals have recently come to be viewed explicitly as potential sources of human(More)
This paper analyses what is possibly the most important long-term impact of Joseph Lister’s method of antisepsis on surgery, namely its role in replacing surgery’s traditional regime of the management of chance by what can be called a regime of modern risk management. It was a crucial step for the expansion of surgery and thus the formation of modern(More)