Thomas Schikorski

Learn More
From three-dimensional reconstructions of CA1 excitatory synapses in the rodent hippocampus and in culture, we have estimated statistical distributions of active zone and postsynaptic density (PSD) sizes (average area approximately 0.04 micron2), the number of active zones per bouton (usually one), the number of docked vesicles per active zone(More)
When hippocampal synapses in culture are pharmacologically silenced for several days, synaptic strength increases. The structural correlate of this change in strength is an increase in the size of the synapses, with all synaptic components--active zone, postsynaptic density, and bouton--becoming larger. Further, the number of docked vesicles and the total(More)
By combining photoconversion of FM1-43-stained vesicles and electron microscopy of hippocampal synapses, we find evidence that the population of morphologically docked synaptic vesicles corresponds to the release-ready neurotransmitter quanta. Furthermore, those synaptic vesicles that are participating in cycles of exo- and endocytosis tend to be closer to(More)
Wiring a brain presents a formidable problem because neural circuits require an enormous number of fast and durable connections. We propose that evolution was likely to have optimized neural circuits to minimize conduction delays in axons, passive cable attenuation in dendrites, and the length of "wire" used to construct circuits, and to have maximized the(More)
To determine the extent to which hippocampal synapses are typical of those found in other cortical regions, we have carried out a quantitative analysis of olfactory cortical excitatory synapses, reconstructed from serial electron micrograph sections of mouse brain, and have compared these new observations with previously obtained data from hippocampus. Both(More)
Retinoid signaling is mediated by two classes of re-ences therein). and Oncology All of the subtypes of RAR and RXR are different gene McGill University products with each displaying distinct patterns of ex-Molecular Oncology Group pression (Mangelsdorf et al., 1994). RAR␣ is almost ubiq-Royal Victoria Hospital uitously expressed (Giguè re et al. Of(More)
A remarkably diverse set of traits maps to a region on mouse distal chromosome 1 (Chr 1) that corresponds to human Chr 1q21-q23. This region is highly enriched in quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control neural and behavioral phenotypes, including motor behavior, escape latency, emotionality, seizure susceptibility (Szs1), and responses to ethanol,(More)
We have quantified hippocampal spine structure at the light and ultrastructural levels in cell cultures approximately 1- 3 weeks old and in the brains of rodents 5 and 21 d old. The number of spines bearing synapses increases with age in cultures and in brain, but the structures are similar in both. In culture, about half of the synapses are formed on(More)
Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are the most widely studied forms of synaptic plasticity thought to underlie spatial learning and memory. We report here that RARbeta deficiency in mice virtually eliminates hippocampal CA1 LTP and LTD. It also results in substantial performance deficits in spatial learning and memory(More)
The cytoplasm of the highly polarized nerve cell is permanently segregated into domains with differing organellar composition. The mechanisms maintaining this segregation are largely unknown. In order to elucidate the potential role of cytoskeletal elements in this process we compared the cytoplasmic segregation within the giant electromotoneuron of the(More)