Thomas Schall

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The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1; also known as chemokine ligand 12 [CXCL12]) regulates many essential biological processes, including cardiac and neuronal development, stem cell motility, neovascularization, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. It is generally believed that SDF-1 mediates these many disparate processes via a single(More)
Entry of HIV-1 into target cells requires cell-surface CD4 and additional host cell cofactors. A cofactor required for infection with virus adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines was recently identified and named fusin. However, fusin does not promote entry of macrophage-tropic viruses, which are believed to be the key pathogenic strains in vivo.(More)
Chemokines direct the trafficking of white blood cells in immune surveillance, playing a key role in inflammatory and infectious diseases such as AIDS. All chemokines studied so far are secreted proteins of relative molecular mass approximately 7K-15K and fall into three families that are defined by a cysteine signature motif: CXC, CC and C (refs 3, 6, 7),(More)
Leukocyte trafficking at the endothelium requires both cellular adhesion molecules and chemotactic factors. Fractalkine, a novel transmembrane molecule with a CX3C-motif chemokine domain atop a mucin stalk, induces both adhesion and migration of leukocytes. Here we identify a seven-transmembrane high-affinity receptor for fractalkine and show that it(More)
Chemokines and chemokine receptors have been posited to have important roles in several common malignancies, including breast and lung cancer. Here, we demonstrate that CXCR7 (RDC1, CCX-CKR2), recently deorphanized as a chemokine receptor that binds chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12, can regulate these two common malignancies. Using a combination of(More)
The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators and attractants of eosinophils and basophils. We have isolated a cDNA that encodes a seven transmembrane-spanning receptor, with homology to other chemoattractant receptors, that encodes a protein designated C-C CKR-1 that acts as a(More)
Searching for new receptors of dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines, we used a combination of techniques to interrogate orphan chemokine receptors. We report here on human CCX CKR, previously represented only by noncontiguous expressed sequence tags homologous to bovine PPR1, a putative gustatory receptor. We employed a two-tiered process of ligand(More)
The Duffy blood group antigen has been postulated to be a receptor on red blood cells (RBCs) for the malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax and a promiscuous receptor for the chemokine superfamily of inflammatory proteins. Recently, the Duffy antigen glycoprotein D cDNA has been cloned (Chaudhuri et al: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:10793, 1993). We have analyzed(More)
HIV-1 infection of the brain results in chronic inflammation, contributing to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurologic disease. HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes (MP) present in inflammatory infiltrates produce neurotoxins that mediate inflammation, dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis. Neurologic disease is correlated with the relative(More)