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B cells are important effectors and regulators of adaptive and innate immune responses, inflammation and autoimmunity, for instance in anti-NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Thus, pharmacological modulation of B-cell function could be an effective regimen in therapeutic strategies. Since the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist memantine is clinically applied(More)
The stroma of solid tumors is a complex network of different cell types. We analyzed stroma cell interactions in two tumor models during cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced tumor rejection. In growing tumors, tumor infiltrating macrophages (TIMs) produced interleukin (IL)-10. Beginning 6 h after Cy-treatment T cells in the tumor were inactivated and TIMs switched(More)
We investigated the effect of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) regulatory protein Tat on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by voltage-clamp recording and its role in NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity using cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Tat (0.01-1muM) potentiated NMDA-induced currents of recombinant NMDA receptors.(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are tetrameric protein complexes composed of the glycine-binding NR1 subunit with a glutamate-binding NR2 and/or glycine-binding NR3 subunit. Tri-heteromeric receptors containing NR1, NR2, and NR3 subunits reconstitute channels, which differ strikingly in many properties from the respective glycine- and glutamate-gated(More)
It is widely accepted that cellular immune responses are induced by CD4(+) T helper 1 (Th1) cells secreting interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Tumor immunity is often mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) whose activation is supported by Th1 cytokines. Since IL-4 directs Th2 development and has been shown to inhibit Th1-dominated responses,(More)
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a major survival factor for mature T cells. Therefore, the degree of IL-7 availability determines the size of the peripheral T cell pool and regulates T cell homeostasis. Here we provide evidence that IL-7 also regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), colon function and the composition of the commensal(More)
Activation of tumor-associated CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) often requires antigen representation, e.g., by dendritic cells (DCs), and CD4(+) T cell help. Previously, we showed that CTL-mediated tumor immunity required interleukin 4 (IL-4) during the immunization but not effector phase. To determine the source and target cells of IL-4, we performed(More)
The article contrasts the bottom-up with the top-down approach to the development of systems for virtual motor rehabilitation. A research project is presented that uses the top-down approach for the development of a system for virtual neurorehabilitation of amputees suffering from phantom limb pain. Artistic visualisations that are inspired by the field of(More)
The ability to reconstitute interleukin (IL)-4-/- mice with bone marrow of IL-4+/+ mice was investigated. The absence of the IL-4-/- gene in donor or recipient cells did not impair the reconstitution. All immunoglobulin (Ig) subsets occurred at normal serum levels except for IgE and to some extent IgG1. IgE production did not recover in the reconstituted(More)
Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an enzyme-induced growth process on solid substrates. In order to customize the enzymatically grown nanoparticles (EGNP) for analytical applications in biomolecular research, a detailed study was carried out concerning the time evolution of the formation of the silver nanoparticles, their morphology, and their(More)