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Axoplasm from the squid giant axon contains a soluble protein translocator that induces movement of microtubules on glass, latex beads on microtubules, and axoplasmic organelles on microtubules. We now report the partial purification of a protein from squid giant axons and optic lobes that induces these microtubule-based movements and show that there is a(More)
A reconstituted system for examining directed organelle movements along purified microtubules has been developed. Axoplasm from the squid giant axon was separated into soluble supernatant and organelle-enriched fractions. Movement of axoplasmic organelles along MAP-free microtubules occurred consistently only after addition of axoplasmic supernatant and(More)
Single microtubules from squid axoplasm support bidirectional movement of organelles. We previously purified a microtubule translocator (kinesin) that moves latex beads in only one direction along microtubules. In this study, a polar array of microtubules assembled off of centrosomes in vitro was used to demonstrate that kinesin moves latex beads from the(More)
We describe the design and operation of a machine that freezes biological tissues by contact with a cold metal block, which incorporates a timing circuit that stimulates frog neuromuscular junctions in the last few milliseconds before thay are frozen. We show freeze-fracture replicas of nerve terminals frozen during transmitter discharge, which display(More)
Much is known about the composition and function of the postsynaptic density (PSD), but less is known about its molecular organization. We use EM tomography to delineate the organization of PSDs at glutamatergic synapses in rat hippocampal cultures. The core of the PSD is dominated by vertically oriented filaments, and ImmunoGold labeling shows that PSD-95(More)
Cytoplasmic filaments, separated from the axoplasm of the squid giant axon and visualized by video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy, support the directed movement of organelles in the presence of ATP. All organelles, regardless of size, move continuously along isolated transport filaments at 2.2 +/- 0.2 micron/sec. In the intact(More)
The number of large intramembrane particles associated with sites of synaptic vesicle release at the squid giant synapse was determined and compared to the average maximal presynaptic calcium current in order to derive an estimate of the conductance each particle would have if it were a calcium channel. This value, 0.21 pS, compares favorably with(More)
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a leading candidate for a synaptic memory molecule because it is persistently activated after long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and because mutations that block this persistent activity prevent LTP and learning. Previous work showed that synaptic stimulation causes a rapidly reversible(More)
The freeze-fracture technique was used to study differences in membrane structure which could explain differences in the number of quanta released from axon terminals on twitch and tonic muscle fibers in Anolis intercostal muscles. The protoplasmic leaflets of axon terminals facing lizard twitch muscle fibers have intramembrane particle specializations(More)
Introduction Electron microscopic (EM) tomography is proving useful for examining the organization of protein molecules in large molecular machines at critical neural sites, such as synapses. Methods are still in a state of flux, and many steps exist between a neuron and a molecular model of one of its synapses. Here, we show our approach for doing(More)