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Eddy-covariance and biometeorological methods show significant net annual carbon uptake in an old-growth Douglas-fir 64 forest in southwestern Washington, USA. These results contrast with previous assumptions that old-growth forest ecosystems are in carbon equilibrium. The basis for differences between conventional biomass-based carbon sequestration(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the capacity of different visible wavelengths of light to suppress nocturnal levels of pineal melatonin in hamsters. It was found that the visible wavelengths vary in their ability to perturb pineal melatonin. During the period of peak pineal melatonin production, animals were exposed to fluorescent light sources having(More)
The ultrastructure of pinealocytes was examined morphometrically in superior cervical ganglionectomized and sham-operated cotton rats. Following denervation, the pinealocytes decreased in size. Reduced areas of the nucleoli, Golgi apparatus, granular endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and vacuoles containing a flocculent material as well as a decreased(More)
Pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and radioimmunoassayable levels of melatonin were compared in 2-month-old (young), 12-month-old (middle-aged), and 29-month-old (old) female rats killed at 1600 h (during the light) and at 2300 h (4 h after darkness onset) and 0100 h (6 h after darkness onset). During the light period, NAT levels were equivalent in(More)
Pineal melatonin levels were compared in laboratory-raised or wild-captured 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) that were either exposed to 10 h of darkness at night or to light which had an irradiance of 400 microW/cm2. In laboratory-born squirrels the period of darkness was associated with a gradual rise in pineal melatonin levels(More)
The number of "synaptic" ribbons was inversely correlated with the density of the adrenergic nerve endings of the pineal gland compared among a diverse group of species including the fox, cat, rat, cotton rat, white-footed mouse, Djungarian hamster, ground squirrel, and chipmunk. The concentration of norepinephrine paralleled the number of adrenergic nerve(More)
Accumulations of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) following decarboxylase inhibition as indices for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and catecholamine (dopamine and/or norepinephrine) synthesis, respectively, were both increased in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) of ovariectomized rats treated with a combination of(More)
This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alitretinoin for the treatment of adults with severe chronic hand eczema refractory to topical steroid treatment in accordance with the licensed indication, based upon the evidence submission from Basilea Pharmaceuticals Ltd to(More)
p-Chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) treatment reduced pineal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels by 68.9% of non-PCPA treated levels in intact rat pineal glands and by 95.9% of non-PCPA treated levels in adrenergically denervated rat pineal glands. Although isoproterenol stimulation resulted in increased activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity in(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize Na+-dependent, high affinity glutamate transporter (GLUT) activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and to compare GLUT activity in PVN of euhydrated versus water-deprived rats. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were deprived of water for two days before sacrifice. Control(More)