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Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) are responsible for the packaging of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine into synaptic vesicles. These proteins evolved from precursors in the major facilitator superfamily of transporters and are among the members of the toxin extruding antiporter family. While the primary(More)
Several methods including water displacement, casting, the Grossman–Roudner measuring device, photographs, mammograms, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been proposed for the measurement of breast volume. The most cost-effective method has not been determined. This study compared breast volume measurements using the Grossman–Roudner(More)
Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knock-out (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in(More)
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2) is responsible for packaging dopamine into vesicles for subsequent release and has been suggested to serve a neuroprotective role in the dopamine system. Here, we show that mice that express approximately 5% of normal VMAT2 (VMAT2 LO) display age-associated nigrostriatal dopamine dysfunction that(More)
Evidence suggests that serotonin (5-HT) systems are involved in the regulation of an organism's response to stress. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility that central (20, 100, or 200 microg icv), peripheral (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg sc), or combined central (200 microg) plus peripheral (0.1 mg/kg) injections of the selective 5-HT(2) agonist(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipolytic potential of solutions used in the practice of cosmetic mesotherapy to stimulate lipolysis, cause local fat reduction and reduce the appearance of cellulite. The mesotherapy solutions were tested in a human fat cell assay using the fold induction of glycerol generation as a measure of lipolysis. The(More)
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) controls the loading of dopamine (DA) into vesicles and therefore determines synaptic properties such as quantal size, receptor sensitivity, and vesicular and cytosolic DA concentration. Impairment of proper DA compartmentalization is postulated to underlie the sensitivity of DA neurons to oxidative damage and(More)
Epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential mechanisms by which PCBs may disrupt normal functioning of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We utilized an environmentally relevant exposure of(More)
BACKGROUND Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used in medical applications, but scientific studies of its efficacy and the mechanism by which it causes loss of fat from fat cells for body contouring are lacking. This study examined the effectiveness and mechanism by which 635–680 nm LLLT acts as a non-invasive body contouring intervention method. (More)
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at carbon fiber microelectrodes can be used to measure behaviorally correlated dopamine changes in the extracellular fluid of the brain of freely moving rats. These experiments employ a chronically implanted Ag/AgCl reference electrode. When dopamine measurements are taken 4 days after implantation, there is often a(More)