Thomas S. Frank

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PURPOSE To assess the characteristics that correlate best with the presence of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in individuals tested in a clinical setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS The results of 10,000 consecutive gene sequence analyses performed to identify mutations anywhere in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (7,461 analyses) or for three specific Ashkenazi Jewish(More)
Cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) transmit acoustic information to spiral ganglion neurons through ribbon synapses. Here we have used morphological and physiological techniques to ask whether synaptic mechanisms differ along the tonotopic axis and within IHCs in the mouse cochlea. We show that the number of ribbon synapses per IHC peaks where the cochlea is(More)
At the presynaptic active zone, Ca²+ influx triggers fusion of synaptic vesicles. It is not well understood how Ca²+ channel clustering and synaptic vesicle docking are organized. Here, we studied structure and function of hair cell ribbon synapses following genetic disruption of the presynaptic scaffold protein Bassoon. Mutant synapses--mostly lacking the(More)
The present studies were aimed at determining if the use of a cell culture medium that supports proliferation of human mammary epithelial cells of the luminal lineage would allow routine isolation of breast cancer cells from primary and metastatic tumor specimens. Results obtained with mammary epithelial cells derived from reduction mammoplasty specimens(More)
Sound coding at hair cell ribbon synapses is tightly regulated by Ca(2+). Here, we used patch-clamp, fast confocal Ca(2+) imaging and modeling to characterize synaptic Ca(2+) signaling in cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) of hearing mice. Submicrometer fluorescence hotspots built up and collapsed at the base of IHCs within a few milliseconds of stimulus(More)
PURPOSE Previous studies of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 have used detection methods that may underestimate the actual frequency of mutations and have analyzed women using heterogeneous criteria for risk of hereditary cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 238 women with breast cancer before age 50 or ovarian cancer at any age and at least one first- or(More)
One hundred breast and breast-ovarian cancer families identified at the Helsinki University Central Hospital in southern Finland and previously screened for mutations in the BRCA2 gene were now analyzed for mutations in the BRCA1 gene. The coding region and splice boundaries of BRCA1 were analyzed by protein truncation test (PTT) and heteroduplex analysis(More)
Germline mutations in the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene are thought to be the most common cause of hereditary ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to explore further the role of BRCA1 alterations in the development of ovarian cancers. We sought to determine whether somatic BRCA1 mutations are ever present in ovarian cancers and whether mutation is always(More)
Robustness of neuronal activity patterns against variations in input intensity is critical for neuronal computations. We found that odor representations in the olfactory bulb were stabilized by interneurons that were densely coupled to the output neurons by electrical and GABAergic synapses. This interneuron network modulated responses of output neurons as(More)
BACKGROUND In women with a family history of breast cancer, bilateral prophylactic mastectomy is associated with a decreased risk of subsequent breast cancer of approximately 90%. We examined the association between bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and breast cancer risk in women at high risk for breast cancer who also had mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2(More)