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1 Department of Immunity and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, 2 Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 3 Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and HTA, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 4 Department of(More)
Intensive anti-malaria campaigns targeting the Anopheles population have demonstrated substantial reductions in adult mosquito density. Understanding the population dynamics of Anopheles mosquitoes throughout their whole lifecycle is important to assess the likely impact of vector control interventions alone and in combination as well as to aid the design(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past decade malaria intervention coverage has been scaled up across Africa. However, it remains unclear what overall reduction in transmission is achievable using currently available tools. METHODS AND FINDINGS We developed an individual-based simulation model for Plasmodium falciparum transmission in an African context incorporating(More)
he accomplishments of this Programme inspire all of us in public health to dream big dreams. It shows we can reach 'impossible' goals and lighten the burden of millions of the world's poorest people .... " These were the concluding words by former World Health Organization Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland at the closure ceremony of the Onchocerciasis(More)
Over the past decade the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), in combination with improved drug therapies, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and better health infrastructure, has helped reduce malaria in many African countries for the first time in a generation. However, insecticide resistance in the vector is an evolving threat to these gains. We(More)
Despite decades of effort battling against malaria, the disease is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that target sexual stage parasite development could be an integral part of measures for malaria elimination. In the 1950s, Huff et al. first demonstrated the induction of transmission-blocking immunity in(More)
INTRODUCTION In the era of malaria elimination and eradication, drug-based and vaccine-based approaches to reduce malaria transmission are receiving greater attention. Such interventions require assays that reliably measure the transmission of Plasmodium from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes. METHODS WE COMPARED TWO COMMONLY USED MOSQUITO FEEDING ASSAY(More)
Daily mortality is an important determinant of a vector's ability to transmit pathogens. Original simplifying assumptions in malaria transmission models presume vector mortality is independent of age, infection status and parasite load. Previous studies illustrate conflicting evidence as to the importance of Plasmodium-induced vector mortality, but very few(More)
The standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) is currently considered to be the 'gold standard' for assessing the effectiveness of malaria transmission blocking interventions (TBIs) in vivo. The operation and analysis of SMFAs has varied between laboratories: field scientists often measure TBI efficacy as a reduction in the prevalence of infected mosquitoes(More)
BACKGROUND To date schistosomiasis control programmes based on chemotherapy have largely aimed at controlling morbidity in treated individuals rather than at suppressing transmission. In this study, a mathematical modelling approach was used to estimate reductions in the rate of Schistosoma mansoni reinfection following annual mass drug administration (MDA)(More)