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Refactorings are changes made to programs, models or specifications with the intention of improving their structure and thus making them clearer, more readable and re-usable. Refactorings are required to be behaviour-preserving in that the external behaviour of the program/model/specification remains unchanged. In this paper we show how a simple type of(More)
Software-intensive systems are subject to continuous change due to modification of the systems themselves and their environment. Methods for supporting evolution are a competitive edge in software engineering as software is operated over decades. Empirical research is useful to validate the effectiveness of these methods. However, empirical studies on(More)
Software changes during its lifetime. Likewise, specifications change during their design time, e.g. by removing, adding or changing operations. In a refinement-based approach to software design, we moreover do not deal with a single but with a chain of specifications, related via refinement. Changes thus need to be consistently made to all specifications(More)