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The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one(More)
Sleep-waking cycles are fundamental in human circadian rhythms and their disruption can have consequences for behaviour and performance. Such disturbances occur due to domestic or occupational schedules that do not permit normal sleep quotas, rapid travel across multiple meridians and extreme athletic and recreational endeavours where sleep is restricted or(More)
This study aimed to describe the work-rate profiles of referees during soccer matches and record heart-rate responses during these games. Using video-recordings 14 referees were observed and their heart rates during the games were monitored by short-range radio telemetry. These included 11 football league matches. The exercise intensity was largely(More)
Rapid travel across multiple time zones disturbs circadian rhythms and induces "jet lag". The aims of this study were 1) to monitor a selection of subjective, physiological and performance variables in elite athletes and sedentary subjects following a westerly flight across five time zones, and 2) to examine whether the promotion of sleep by means of a(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of specific (small-sided games) vs. generic (running) aerobic interval training on physical fitness and objective measures of match performance in soccer. Forty junior players were randomly assigned to either generic (n=20) or specific (n=20) interval training consisting of 4 bouts of 4 min at 90-95 % of(More)
Soccer entails intermittent exercise with bouts of short, intense activity punctuating longer periods of low-level, moderate-intensity exercise. High levels of blood lactate may sometimes be observed during a match but the active recovery periods at submaximal exercise levels allow for its removal on a continual basis. While anaerobic efforts are evident in(More)
Unique requirements of field hockey include dribbling the ball and moving quickly in a semi-crouched posture. First, the net physiological strain due to dribbling was examined. Seven male hockey players completed a 5 min run on the treadmill at 8 km h-1 and 10 km h-1: subjects also ran at these speeds whilst dribbling a hockey ball. Dribbling increased(More)
We discuss current knowledge on the description, impact, and underlying causes of circadian rhythmicity in sports performance. We argue that there is a wealth of information from both applied and experimental work, which, when considered together, suggests that sports performance is affected by time of day in normal entrained conditions and that the(More)
BACKGROUND Travelling across multiple time zones disrupts normal circadian rhythms and induces "jet lag". Possible effects of this on training and performance in athletes were concerns before the Sydney Olympic Games. OBJECTIVE To identify some determinants of jet lag and its symptoms. METHODS A mixture of athletes, their coaches, and academics(More)
Chronobiology is the science concerned with investigations of time-dependent changes in physiological variables. Circadian rhythms refer to variations that recur every 24 hours. Many physiological circadian rhythms at rest are endogenously controlled, and persist when an individual is isolated from environmental fluctuations. Unlike physiological variables,(More)