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Parasitic nematodes that cause elephantiasis and river blindness threaten hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. We have sequenced the approximately 90 megabase (Mb) genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi and predict approximately 11,500 protein coding genes in 71 Mb of robustly assembled sequence. Comparative analysis with the(More)
The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic(More)
An important variable in the epidemiology of arthropodborne diseases is the intensity of transmission, which is a function of host-vector contact and the prevalence of infection in the vector population. This latter value is often difficult to estimate. It is possible to envision the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to this problem. To(More)
Transient transfection of isolated Brugia malayi embryos by biolistics has proven to be useful in defining promoter structure and function in this parasite. However, isolated transfected embryos are developmentally incompetent. A method of producing developmentally competent transfected parasites is therefore needed. We report that L3 parasites can be(More)
An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings(More)
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) heteroduplex assay (HDA) was developed to identify avian derived mosquito blood meals to the species level. The assay used primers amplifying a fragment of the cytochrome B gene from vertebrate but not invertebrate species. In Culex tarsalis fed on quail, PCR products derived from the quail cytochrome B gene were detected(More)
To develop a method for the introduction of DNA into filarial parasites, several methods that have proven successful in other organisms were evaluated for their ability to transform Brugia malayi. Luciferase activity was detectable in embryos bombarded with gold particles coated with a construct consisting of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of(More)
West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) was first detected in the Tennessee Valley and in Alabama in August 2001. In summer 2002, intensive viral activity was seen, but in subsequent years, viral activity settled into an enzootic pattern. Here, we report an analysis of viral activity in the mosquito fauna in the Mid-South from 2002 (the(More)
Biolistic transient transfection of Brugia malayi embryos with constructs driving the expression of a luciferase reporter gene was used to identify regions of the upstream sequence of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene of B. malayi necessary for transgene expression. Analysis of 1160 nucleotides upstream of the start codon of the HSP70 gene identified(More)
The species composition and population dynamics of adult mosquitoes in a wetland near Iuka, MS, were analyzed over a 6-yr period (1997-2002) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection rates of arboviruses determined during five of those years. Blood meals of three likely vector species were identified using a PCR-based method that(More)