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Leaf development in C4 plants such as maize involves the differentiation of two photosynthetic cell types [bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M)] to form Kranz-type leaf anatomy. This cellular dimorphism partitions photosynthetic activities so that each enzyme of the C4 pathway accumulates only in the appropriate cell type. We have exploited this property to(More)
C4 plants such as maize partition photosynthetic activities in two morphologically distinct cell types, bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M), which lie as concentric layers around veins. We show that both light and cell position relative to veins influence C4 photosynthetic gene expression. A pattern of gene expression characteristic of C3 plants [ribulose(More)
The regulation of members of the knotted1-like homeobox (knox) gene family is required for the normal initiation and development of lateral organs. The maize rough sheath2 (rs2) gene, which encodes a Myb-domain protein, is expressed in lateral organ primordia and their initials. Mutations in the rs2 gene permit ectopic expression of knox genes in leaf and(More)
Development of the C4 photosynthetic pathway relies upon the cell-specific accumulation of photosynthetic enzymes. Although the molecular basis of this cell-specific gene expression is not known, regulation appears to be exerted at the level of transcript accumulation. We have investigated the relationship between gene expression patterns and DNA(More)
It is suggested that ultrasound data acquisition will play an increasing role in the future of medical imaging. Unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT), ultrasound offers interactive visualization of underlying anatomy in real time. Additionally, ultrasound equipment costs far less and does not use ionizing radiation or(More)
Chloroplast-localized NADP-dependent malic enzyme (EC (NADP-ME) provides a key activity for the carbon 4 fixation pathway. In maize, nuclear encoded NADP-ME is synthesized in the cytoplasm as a precursor with a transit peptide that is removed upon transport into the chloroplast stroma. We present here the complete nucleotide sequence for a(More)
Leaf development in C4 plants requires the morphological and functional differentiation of two photosynthetic cell types (bundle sheath and mesophyll). Photosynthetic reactions are split between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells, with each cell type accumulating a specific complement of photosynthetic enzymes. Current evidence suggests that in order to(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the feasibility of breast computed tomography (CT) in terms of radiation dose and image quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS Validated Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to estimate the average glandular dose (AGD). The calculated photon fluence at the detector for high-quality abdominal CT (120 kVp, 300 mAs, 5-mm section thickness)(More)