Thomas R. Martin

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Acute lung injury in humans is characterized histopathologically by neutrophilic alveolitis, injury of the alveolar epithelium and endothelium, hyaline membrane formation, and microvascular thrombi. Different animal models of experimental lung injury have been used to investigate mechanisms of lung injury. Most are based on reproducing in animals known risk(More)
The goal of this study was to determine the changes that occur in surfactant-associated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and serum of patients at risk for ARDS and during the course of ARDS. We found that the concentrations of SP-A and SP-B were low in the BAL of patients at risk for ARDS before the onset of clinically defined lung injury,(More)
CONTEXT Recent clinical trials have demonstrated a decrease in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with a protective ventilatory strategy. OBJECTIVE To examine the hypothesis that an injurious ventilatory strategy may lead to end-organ epithelial cell apoptosis and(More)
The adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by increased neutrophils within the airspaces of the lungs. In order to determine if neutrophil activating protein (NAP)-1/interleukin-8 (NAP-1/IL-8) could be an important cause of neutrophil influx and activation in ARDS, we examined fluid, which was either directly aspirated or lavaged with(More)
Our understanding of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) and its relationship to asthma remains incomplete. Herein, we describe a murine model of epicutaneous (EC) sensitization to the protein allergen, chicken egg albumin, ovalbumin (OVA), which results in a rise in total and OVA-specific serum IgE and leads to the development of a dermatitis(More)
The goals of this study were to determine whether the Fas-dependent apoptosis pathway is active in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and whether this pathway can contribute to lung epithelial injury. We found that soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) is present in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients before and after(More)
RATIONALE Polymorphisms affecting Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated responses could predispose to excessive inflammation during an infection and contribute to an increased risk for poor outcomes in patients with sepsis. OBJECTIVES To identify hypermorphic polymorphisms causing elevated TLR-mediated innate immune cytokine and chemokine responses and to(More)
Selected morphological and metabolic properties of single fibers were studied in biopsy samples from the tibialis anterior of normal control and spinal cord-injured (SCI) subjects. In the SCI subjects, one muscle was electrically stimulated progressively over 24 wk, in 6-wk blocks for less than or equal to 8 h/day, while the contralateral muscle remained(More)
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is epidemic in the United States, even rivaling HIV/AIDS in its public health impact. The pandemic clone USA300, like other CA-MRSA strains, expresses Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a pore-forming toxin that targets polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). PVL is thought to play a(More)
Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1) have been found to be elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in plasma from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In order to measure the balance of proinflammatory cytokines and their inhibitors, we quantified the upregulation of(More)