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Chronic alcohol abuse, a major health problem, causes liver and pancreatic diseases and is known to impair hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Hepatic ADH-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol is a major pathway for the ethanol disposition in the body. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), induced in chronic alcohol abuse, is also reported to oxidize(More)
Pichinde virus (PIC) is a reticuloendothelial arenavirus of the New World tropics. A guinea pig passage-adapted strain of this virus (adPIC) is uniformly lethal for inbred guinea pigs, while the related, prototype strain (PIC3739) has attenuated virulence. The abilities of adPIC and PIC3739 to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vivo and in cultured(More)
Cynomolgus monkeys were evaluated for cellular immune responses after infection with the Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Antibody and clinical signs of localized and systemic infection were also evaluated. Animals challenged with homologous or heterologous strains at various times after a primary infection were also followed up. Naive monkeys(More)
Chronic alcohol abuse by human beings has been shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infections and severity of inflammatory responses associated with pulmonary infection. On the basis of the higher likelihood of exposure to respiratory viruses, people who abuse alcohol would logically be susceptible to respiratory viral(More)
The ability of antigen-responsive, thymus-derived lymphocytes to produce immune (gamma) interferon was investigated during the development and expression of cellular immunity to Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. C3H/HeDub mice infected subcutaneously with the Gilliam strain developed the ability to produce serum interferon in response to intravenously inoculated(More)
Excessive consumption of alcohol is associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of infectious diseases. Ethanol adversely affects specific and nonspecific aspects of the immune response. We used a murine model to determine whether ethanol ingestion impairs host mechanisms of resistance to Listeria monocytogenes. Naive mice and mice immune to(More)
Thymocyte apoptosis is one of the best characterized experimental models of apoptosis that can be induced by a variety of stimuli such as glucocorticoids, ionizing radiation, antibodies, and toxins. Recently, it has been suggested that oxidative stress is a common mediator of apoptosis. However, little is known about the production and possible function of(More)
We have created a number of recombinant Hep G2 cell lines, designated VA cells, that constitutively express alcohol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of ethanol by the VA cells results in the production and accumulation of acetaldehyde, and a dramatic increase in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced (NADH)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) ratio(More)
Exposure to ethanol in utero results in changes in the offspring's developing immune system, including thymus lymphocyte subpopulation shifts and functional lymphocyte changes that persist in adult animals. The present study was designed to define further the extent of changes in the immune system that result from fetal ethanol exposure and to compare(More)
Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses of inbred mice during the course of lethal and chronic infections with strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated by using the influx of radiolabeled cells into antigen-injected ears. Congenic strains of C3H mice, which previously have been shown to be resistant (C3H/RV) or sensitive (C3H/HeDub) to lethal(More)