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The spread of HIV between immune cells is greatly enhanced by cell-cell adhesions called virological synapses, although the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. With use of an infectious, fluorescent clone of HIV, we tracked the movement of Gag in live CD4 T cells and captured the direct translocation of HIV across the virological synapse. Quantitative,(More)
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic and photophysical properties of PR1 (phytofluor red 1), an intensely red fluorescent biliprotein variant of the truncated cyanobacterial phytochrome 1 (Cph1Delta, which consists of the N-terminal 514 amino acids). Single-molecule diffusion measurements showed that PR1 has(More)
One of the primary neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease is the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques resulting from the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. The intrinsic disorder of the Aβ peptide drives self-association and progressive reordering of the conformation in solution, and this dynamic distribution of Aβ complicates(More)
Raman scattering is the inelastic scattering of light by chemical bonds, and can therefore show molecular specificity. It can be used both in pure spectroscopy mode, and in imaging mode. While many applications of Raman spectroscopy and imaging in the biomedical field have been so far demonstrated, the use of this technology for pathology applications is(More)
Fenestrations are transcellular pores in endothelial cells that facilitate transfer of substrates between blood and the extravascular compartment. In order to understand the regulation and formation of fenestrations, the relationship between membrane rafts and fenestrations was investigated in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells where fenestrations are(More)
The protein family known as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprises an important class of membrane-associated proteins, which remains a difficult family of proteins to characterize because their function requires a native-like lipid membrane environment. This paper focuses on applying a single step method leading to the formation of nanolipoprotein(More)
Oleaginous photosynthetic microalgae hold great promise as non-food feedstocks for the sustainable production of bio-commodities. The algal lipid quality can be analysed by Raman micro-spectroscopy, and the lipid content can be imaged in vivo in a label-free and non-destructive manner by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In this(More)
Tissue engineering by stem cell differentiation is a novel treatment option for bone regeneration. Most approaches for the detection of osteogenic differentiation are invasive or destructive and not compatible with live cell analysis. Here, non-destructive and label-free approaches of Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and(More)
Yersinia pestis enters host cells and evades host defenses, in part, through interactions between Yersinia pestis proteins and host membranes. One such interaction is through the type III secretion system, which uses a highly conserved and ordered complex for Yersinia pestis outer membrane effector protein translocation called the injectisome. The portion(More)
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) act as a filter between blood and the hepatocytes. LSECs are highly fenestrated cells; they contain transcellular pores with diameters between 50 to 200 nm. The small sizes of the fenestrae have so far prohibited any functional analysis with standard and advanced light microscopy techniques. Only the advent of(More)