Thomas R. Gruber

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To support the sharing and reuse of formally represented knowledge among AI systems, it is useful to define the common vocabulary in which shared knowledge is represented. A specification of a representational vocabulary for a shared domain of discourse — definitions of classes, relations, functions, and other objects — is called an ontology. This paper(More)
Recent work in Artificial Intelligence is exploring the use of formal ontologies as a way of specifying content-specific agreements for the sharing and reuse of knowledge among software entities. We take an engineering perspective on the development of such ontologies. Formal ontologies are viewed as designed artifacts, formulated for specific purposes and(More)
Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) is a computer-oriented language for the interchange of knowledge among disparate programs. It has declarative semantics (i.e. the meaning of expressions in the representation can be understood without appeal to an interpreter for manipulating those expressions); it is logically comprehensive (i.e. it provides for the(More)
R u le-b a s e d L o g ic-b a s e d F ra m e-b a s e d H y b ri d A n a lo g ic-b a s e d M e ta lo g ic-b a s e d M a n u fa c tu ri n g E le c tr o m e c h a n ic a l F in a n c ia l F lu id ic s C o n s tr u c ti o n S c h e d u le r C la s s if ie r P la n n e r D ia g n o s e r E v a lu a to r 2 M b y te s 3 M b y te s 6 M b y te s 2 M b y te s 1 0 M b(More)
What can happen if we combine the best ideas from the Social Web and Semantic Web? The Social Web is an ecosystem of participation, where value is created by the aggregation of many individual user contributions. The Semantic Web is an ecosystem of data, where value is created by the integration of structured data from many sources. What applications can(More)
The Palo Alto Collaborative Testbed (PACT), a concurrent engineering infrastructure that encompasses multiple sites, subsystems, and disciplines, is discussed. The PACT systems include NVisage, a distributed knowledge-based integration environment for design tools; DME (Device Modeling Environment), a model formulation and simulation environment; Next-Cut,(More)
We describe an ontology for mathematical modeling in engineering. The ontology includes conceptual foundations for scalar, vector, and tensor quantities, physical dimensions, units of measure, functions of quantities, and dimensionless quantities. The conceptualization builds on abstract algebra and measurement theory, but is designed explicitly for(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC)theta is an established component of the immunological synapse and has been implicated in the control of AP-1 and NF-kappaB. To study the physiological function of PKCtheta, we used gene targeting to generate a PKCtheta null allele in mice. Consistently, interleukin 2 production and T cell proliferative responses were strongly reduced(More)
This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that perceptual abnormalities in autism might be associated with alteration of induced gamma activity patterns overlying visual cortical regions. EEG was recorded from six adolescents with autism and eight controls matched on chronological age, and verbal and nonverbal mental age, whilst identifying the(More)