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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. METHODS In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected(More)
We show how plots based on the residuals from a proportional hazards model may be used to reveal the correct functional form for covariates in the model. A smoothed plot of the martingale residues was suggested for this purpose by Therneau, Grambsch, and Fleming (1990, Biometrika 77, 147-160); however, its consistency required that the covariates be(More)
One of the most important considerations in designing clinical trials is the choice of outcome measures. These outcome measures could be clinically meaningful endpoints that are direct measures of how patients feel, function, and survive. Alternatively, indirect measures, such as biomarkers that include physical signs of disease, laboratory measures, and(More)
BACKGROUND The AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 zidovudine prophylaxis regimen for HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their babies has been associated with a significant decrease in vertical HIV-1 transmission in non-breastfeeding women in developed countries. We compared the safety and efficacy of short-course nevirapine or zidovudine during labour(More)
Services Send comment/rapid response letter Notify a friend about this article Alert me when this article is cited Add to Personal Archive Phase 3 clinical trials, which evaluate the effect that new interventions have on the clinical outcomes of particular relevance to the patient (such as death, loss of vision, or other major symptomatic event), often(More)
BACKGROUND In 1999, we reported safety and efficacy data for short-course nevirapine from a Ugandan perinatal HIV-1 prevention trial when 496 babies were followed up to age 14-16 weeks. Safety and efficacy data are now presented for all babies followed up to 18 months of age. METHODS From November, 1997, to April, 1999, HIV-1 infected pregnant women in(More)
The interest in being able to interpret and report results in clinical trials as being favorable is pervasive throughout health care research. This important source of bias needs to be recognized, and approaches need to be implemented to effectively address it. The prespecified primary analyses of the primary and secondary end points of a clinical trial(More)
D ATA ON SURROGATE END POINTS SUCH AS BLOOD pressure or body weight have often been used to support the approval of new pharmacologic treatments for cardiovascular risk factors. In small, short-term studies, a new drug reduces the level of a risk factor, and the changes in risk factor levels are interpreted as if the health benefits expected on the basis of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with BMN 110 (elosulfase alfa) in patients with Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA). METHODS Patients with Morquio A aged ≥5 years (N = 176) were randomised (1:1:1) to receive elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/every other week (qow), elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week (weekly)(More)