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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. METHODS In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected(More)
We show how plots based on the residuals from a proportional hazards model may be used to reveal the correct functional form for covariates in the model. A smoothed plot of the martingale residues was suggested for this purpose by Therneau, Grambsch, and Fleming (1990, Biometrika 77, 147-160); however, its consistency required that the covariates be(More)
One of the most important considerations in designing clinical trials is the choice of outcome measures. These outcome measures could be clinically meaningful endpoints that are direct measures of how patients feel, function, and survive. Alternatively, indirect measures, such as biomarkers that include physical signs of disease, laboratory measures, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with BMN 110 (elosulfase alfa) in patients with Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA). METHODS Patients with Morquio A aged ≥5 years (N = 176) were randomised (1:1:1) to receive elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/every other week (qow), elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week (weekly)(More)
Dissemination of decisions on interim analyses needs wider debate Editor—Lilford et al make a case that interim analyses from randomised trials should be shared with participants and doctors and patients. 1 These analyses should be shared for the sake of freedom of information and properly informed consent, as a counterweight to paternalism, for the better(More)
Use of inappropriate stopping rules for clinical trials results in an excess of false positive conclusions when no true survival differences exist. Overviews of such trials, however, consist mainly of trials which were not stopped early, plus a few of reduced sample size which were. Simulations confirm that the level of such an overview is minimally(More)
Data monitoring committees (DMCs) have important roles in safeguarding patient interests and enhancing trial integrity and credibility. To effectively fulfill their responsibilities, DMCs should be independent of study sponsors, study investigators, and caregivers managing study participants. Unfortunately, in real-world settings where DMCs are in place,(More)
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