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The biogenic monoamine octopamine is essential for ovulation and fertilization in insects. Release of this hormone from neurons in the thoracoabdominal ganglion triggers ovulation and sperm release from the spermathecae. Here we show that the effects of octopamine on ovulation are mediated by at least two different octopamine receptors. In addition to the(More)
Mathematical analysis and computer simulations are used to evaluate three modifications to Kauffman's NK model in an attempt to incorporate unexplored aspects of epistatic interaction between loci in genome evolution. Two modifications--one to the amount and the other to the distribution of epistatic interaction--further support Kauffman's conclusion that(More)
The monoamines octopamine and tyramine, which are the invertebrate counterparts of epinephrine and norepinephrine, transmit their action through sets of G protein-coupled receptors. Four different octopamine receptors (Oamb, Octß1R, Octß2R, Octß3R) and 3 different tyramine receptors (TyrR, TyrRII, TyrRIII) are present in the fruit fly Drosophila(More)
Histamine (HA) is the photoreceptor neurotransmitter in arthropods, directly gating chloride channels on large monopolar cells (LMCs), postsynaptic to photoreceptors in the lamina. Two histamine-gated channel genes that could contribute to this channel in Drosophila are hclA (also known as ort) and hclB (also known as hisCl1), both encoding novel members of(More)
BACKGROUND Airway epithelial cells not only constitute a physical barrier, but also the first line of defence against airborne pathogens. At the same time, they are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species. Therefore, airway epithelia cells have to possess a sophisticated innate immune system and a molecular armamentarium to detoxify reactive oxygen(More)
Sir2 is the most intensively discussed longevity gene in current aging research. Although, the gene encoding a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase initially was found to extend lifespan of various organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, serious doubts regarding its role in longevity have been expressed recently. In this study, we tested whether(More)
Although airway epithelia are primarily devoted to gas exchange, they have to fulfil a number of different tasks including organ maintenance and the epithelial immune response to fight airborne pathogens. These different tasks are at least partially accomplished by specialized cell types in the epithelium. In addition, a proximal to distal gradient(More)
BACKGROUND The molecular mechanisms of variations in individual longevity are not well understood, even though longevity can be increased substantially by means of diverse experimental manipulations. One of the factors supposed to be involved in the increase of longevity is a higher stress resistance. To test this hypothesis in a natural system, eusocial(More)
BACKGROUND Epithelial and especially mucosal immunity represents the first line of defence against the plethora of potential pathogens trying to invade via the gastrointestinal tract. The salivary glands of the fruit fly are an indispensable part of the gastrointestinal tract, but their contribution to the mucosal immunity has almost completely been(More)
Hand proteins belong to the highly conserved family of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors and are critical to distinct developmental processes, including cardiogenesis and neurogenesis in vertebrates. In Drosophila melanogaster a single orthologous hand gene is expressed with absence of the respective protein causing semilethality during early(More)