Thomas Prindle

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BACKGROUND & AIMS Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the leading cause of gastrointestinal death from gastrointestinal disease in preterm infants, is characterized by exaggerated TLR4 signaling and decreased enterocyte proliferation through unknown mechanisms. Given the importance of beta-catenin in regulating proliferation of many cell types, we hypothesize(More)
The fetal intestinal mucosa is characterized by elevated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, which can lead to the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)--a devastating inflammatory disease of the premature intestine--upon exposure to microbes. To define endogenous strategies that could reduce TLR4 signaling, we hypothesized that amniotic fluid(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops in response to elevated TLR4 signaling in the newborn intestinal epithelium and is characterized by TLR4-mediated inhibition of enterocyte migration and reduced mucosal healing. The downstream processes by which TLR4 impairs mucosal healing remain incompletely understood. In other systems, TLR4 induces autophagy, an(More)
The nature and role of the intestinal leukocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe disease affecting premature infants, remain unknown. We now show that the intestine in mouse and human NEC is rich in lymphocytes that are required for NEC development, as recombination activating gene 1–deficient (Rag1–/–) mice were protected from NEC and transfer(More)
Intestinal mucosal injury occurs after remote trauma although the mechanisms that sense remote injury and lead to intestinal epithelial disruption remain incompletely understood. We now hypothesize that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling on enterocytes after remote injury, potentially through the endogenous TLR4 ligand high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1),(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Factors that regulate enterocyte apoptosis in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remain incompletely understood, although Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling in enterocytes plays a major role. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) is an immune receptor that regulates other branches of the immune system, although its effects on(More)
The cellular cues that regulate the apoptosis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) remain incompletely understood, yet may play a role in diseases characterized by ISC loss including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) was recently found to be expressed on ISCs, where its activation leads to ISC apoptosis through mechanisms that remain(More)
Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease that is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of premature infants characterized by severe intestinal necrosis and for which breast milk represents the most effective protective strategy. Previous studies have revealed a critical role for the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in NEC development through its induction of(More)
Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide, yet it may also respond to a variety of endogenous molecules. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal disease in newborn infants and is characterized by intestinal mucosal destruction and impaired enterocyte migration due to increased(More)