Learn More
BACKGROUND & AIMS Little is known about factors that regulate intestinal epithelial differentiation; microbial recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 might be involved. We investigated whether intestinal TLR4 regulates epithelial differentiation and is involved in development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) of the immature intestine. (More)
The fetal intestinal mucosa is characterized by elevated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, which can lead to the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)--a devastating inflammatory disease of the premature intestine--upon exposure to microbes. To define endogenous strategies that could reduce TLR4 signaling, we hypothesized that amniotic fluid(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the leading cause of gastrointestinal death from gastrointestinal disease in preterm infants, is characterized by exaggerated TLR4 signaling and decreased enterocyte proliferation through unknown mechanisms. Given the importance of beta-catenin in regulating proliferation of many cell types, we hypothesize(More)
Intestinal mucosal injury occurs after remote trauma although the mechanisms that sense remote injury and lead to intestinal epithelial disruption remain incompletely understood. We now hypothesize that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling on enterocytes after remote injury, potentially through the endogenous TLR4 ligand high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1),(More)
The nature and role of the intestinal leukocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe disease affecting premature infants, remain unknown. We now show that the intestine in mouse and human NEC is rich in lymphocytes that are required for NEC development, as recombination activating gene 1–deficient (Rag1–/–) mice were protected from NEC and transfer(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops in response to elevated TLR4 signaling in the newborn intestinal epithelium and is characterized by TLR4-mediated inhibition of enterocyte migration and reduced mucosal healing. The downstream processes by which TLR4 impairs mucosal healing remain incompletely understood. In other systems, TLR4 induces autophagy, an(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Factors that regulate enterocyte apoptosis in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remain incompletely understood, although Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling in enterocytes plays a major role. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) is an immune receptor that regulates other branches of the immune system, although its effects on(More)
Factors regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) remain incompletely understood. Because ISCs exist among microbial ligands, immune receptors such as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) could play a role. We now hypothesize that ISCs express TLR4 and that the activation of TLR4 directly on the intestinal stem cells regulates their(More)
Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide, yet it may also respond to a variety of endogenous molecules. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal disease in newborn infants and is characterized by intestinal mucosal destruction and impaired enterocyte migration due to increased(More)
We seek to define the mechanisms leading to the development of lung disease in the setting of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening gastrointestinal disease of premature infants characterized by the sudden onset of intestinal necrosis. NEC development in mice requires activation of the LPS receptor TLR4 on the intestinal epithelium,(More)