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In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild functional disturbances should precede gross structural damage and even more clinical symptoms, possibly by decades. Moreover, alterations in the brainstem are supposed to occur earlier as cortical affections. Based on these considerations, we developed a new method aiming at the measurement of vagal brainstem functioning(More)
Recent studies have emphasized that the pathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) extends beyond the nigrostriatal system [1, 2]. According to the work of Braak [3], it may start in deep brain stem nuclei including the glossopharyngeal/ vagus nerve complex. A method of vagus nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (VN-SEP) for the assessment of vagus nerve(More)
According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), Gray's dimension of impulsivity, reflecting human trait reward sensitivity, determines the extent to which stimuli activate the Behavioural Approach System (BAS). The potential neural underpinnings of the BAS, however, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the association between(More)
The method of vagus somatosensory evoked potentials (VSEP) was introduced to easily measure the activity of vagus brain stem nuclei. In Alzheimer’s disease, this measure was characterized by longer latencies as compared to controls while amplitudes did not show statistical significant differences at frontal and central recording sites. Therefore, the(More)
An approach bias for alcohol stimuli (i.e. faster approach than avoidance reactions) might facilitate relapses in alcohol dependence. Neurobiological models suggest hypersensitivity in the reward system [inter alia nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)] to cause pathologically enhanced approach impulses towards alcohol stimuli. At the same time,(More)
OBJECTIVE Visuospatial deficits are among the first symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and linked to lower activation in the superior parietal cortex as assessed with functional imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical method to measure changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the microvascular(More)
In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the degeneration of brainstem nuclei is different from major depression (MD). Thus, vagus somatosensory evoked potentials (VSEP) proposed for the functional assessment of brainstem nuclei should show prolonged latencies in AD but not in MD. In 55 AD patients, 57 MD patients and two age-matched control groups evoked potentials(More)
Background. In order to prevent future errors, we constantly control our behavior for discrepancies between the expected (i.e., intended) and the real action outcome and continuously adjust our behavior accordingly. Neurophysiological correlates of this action-monitoring process can be studied with event-related potentials (error-related negativity (ERN)(More)
The extinction of conditioned fear depends on an efficient interplay between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In rats, high-frequency electrical mPFC stimulation has been shown to improve extinction by means of a reduction of amygdala activity. However, so far it is unclear whether stimulation of homologues regions in humans might have(More)
OBJECTIVE Vagus somatosensory evoked potentials (VSEP) are far-field potentials probably generated in nuclei of then. vagus in the lower brainstem. They represent a putative, easily applicable method for discrimination between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC). METHODS Thirteen(More)