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Methylation of DNA appears to be an important maintenance mechanism for inhibiting gene expression during development in vertebrates. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) is used as an experimental tool for demethylation and it induces differentiation in various systems. In the chick embryo, the first cellular migrations signal the onset of primitive streak and gastrula… (More)
Cystic hydatid disease may be found in virtually any organ, although involvement of the urinary tract is relatively uncommon. We report a case of isolated renal hydatid disease presenting with hydatiduria. A short review of the literature regarding diagnosis and management of renal echinococcosis is also presented.
PURPOSE We conducted a prospective study to determine whether expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is associated with recurrence-free-survival (RFS) or development of invasive disease in patients with high risk superficial bladder cancer (SBC) that received adjuvant BCG immunotherapy. METHODS Thirty patients with high-grade T1 tumors… (More)
INTRODUCTION Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are very rare benign lesions. They are more common in women and rarely manifest in elderly people. In some cases they present with massive hematuria. Contemporary treatment consists of transcatheter selective arterial embolization which leads to resolution of the hematuria whilst preserving… (More)
Primary small cell bladder carcinoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive tumor. Unfortunately, the optimal therapeutic strategy for the tumor is still unknown. Recently, a two-stage system for limited and extensive small cell bladder carcinoma has been suggested in analogy to the practiced staging and treatment of small cell lung carcinoma. We… (More)