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In this study we show in mice that Ftm (Rpgrip1l) is located at the ciliary basal body. Our data reveal that Ftm is necessary for developmental processes such as the establishment of left-right asymmetry and patterning of the neural tube and the limbs. The loss of Ftm affects the ratio of Gli3 activator to Gli3 repressor, suggesting an involvement of Ftm in(More)
A variety of molecules in human blood have been implicated in the inhibition of HIV-1. However, it remained elusive which circulating natural compounds are most effective in controlling viral replication in vivo. To identify natural HIV-1 inhibitors we screened a comprehensive peptide library generated from human hemofiltrate. The most potent fraction(More)
Several independent, genome-wide association studies have identified a strong correlation between body mass index and polymorphisms in the human FTO gene. Common variants in the first intron define a risk allele predisposing to obesity, with homozygotes for the risk allele weighing approximately 3 kilograms more than homozygotes for the low risk allele.(More)
Mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Iroquois homeobox gene complex, involved in patterning and regionalization of differentiation, have recently been identified (Mech. Dev., 69 (1997) 169; Dev. Biol., 217 (2000) 266; Dev. Dyn., 218 (2000) 160; Mech. Dev., 91 (2000) 317; Dev. Biol., 224 (2000) 263; Genome Res., 10 (2000) 1453; Mech. Dev., 103 (2001) 193).(More)
Signaling of TGF-beta superfamily members is tightly controlled by an elaborate network of regulators (for recent review see Trends Genet. 15 (1999) 3; Genes Dev. 14 (2000) 627). Recently, the transmembrane protein BAMBI (BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) has been shown to interfere with Bmp and activin-like signaling by inhibiting Tgf-beta type I(More)
Iroquois (Irx) proteins comprise a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors involved in patterning and regionalization of embryonic tissues in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The six murine Irx genes are organized in two clusters, each consisting of three genes. Irx1, Irx2 and Irx4 belong to the IrxA cluster on chromosome 13, whereas Irx3,(More)
The recently discovered human Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV or MCV) causes the aggressive Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in the skin of immunocompromised individuals. Conflicting reports suggest that cellular glycans containing sialic acid (Neu5Ac) may play a role in MCPyV infectious entry. To address this question, we solved X-ray structures of the MCPyV(More)
Viruses within a family often vary in their cellular tropism and pathogenicity. In many cases, these variations are due to viruses switching their specificity from one cell surface receptor to another. The structural requirements that underlie such receptor switching are not well understood especially for carbohydrate-binding viruses, as methods capable of(More)
Among Caliciviridae, the norovirus genus encompasses enteric viruses that infect humans as well as several animal species, causing gastroenteritis. Porcine strains are classified together with human strains within genogroup II, whilst bovine norovirus strains represent genogroup III. Various GI and GII human strains bind to carbohydrates of the histo-blood(More)
The α-1,3-glucosyltransferase WaaG is involved in the synthesis of the core region of lipopolysaccharides in E. coli. A fragment-based screening for inhibitors of the WaaG glycosyltrasferase donor site has been performed using NMR spectroscopy. Docking simulations were performed for three of the compounds of the fragment library that had shown binding(More)