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Determination of the vertebrate left-right body axis during embryogenesis results in asymmetric development and placement of most inner organs. Although the asymmetric Nodal cascade is conserved in all vertebrates, the mechanism of symmetry breakage has remained controversial. In mammalian and fish embryos, a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular(More)
Vertebrate organ laterality is manifested by the asymmetric morphogenesis and placement of inner organs. Asymmetric induction of the Nodal signaling cascade in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) precedes and is essential for asymmetric organ morphogenesis. While the Nodal cascade is highly conserved, symmetry breakage is considered to vary between the(More)
Appropriate target reinnervation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury depend on longitudinally directed regrowth of transected axons. To assess the capacity to promote directed axon regeneration, alginate-based highly anisotropic capillary hydrogels (ACH) were introduced into an axon outgrowth assay in vitro and adult rat spinal cord lesions in(More)
Avian migration, which involves billions of birds flying vast distances, is known to influence all aspects of avian life. Here we investigate how birds fit moult into an annual cycle determined by the need to migrate. Large variation exists in moulting patterns in relation to migration: for instance, moult can occur after breeding in the summer or after(More)
It had been previously shown that an idealized version of the two-wave-vector extension of the NMR pulsed-field-gradient spin echo diffusion experiment can be used to determine the apparent radius of geometries with restricted diffusion. In the present work, the feasibility of the experiment was demonstrated in an NMR imaging experiment, in which the(More)
The claim that migratory birds are responsible for the long-distance spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 rests on the assumption that infected wild birds can remain asymptomatic and migrate long distances unhampered. We critically assess this claim from the perspective of ecologic immunology, a research field that analyzes(More)
Vertebrate laterality, which is manifested by asymmetrically placed organs [1], depends on asymmetric activation of the Nodal signaling cascade in the left lateral plate mesoderm [2]. In fish, amphibians, and mammals, a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluid acts upstream of the Nodal cascade [3-6]. The direct target of flow has remained elusive.(More)
The aim of the present study was to assess the functioning of the different subsystems of working memory after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 30 patients with severe chronic TBI and 28 controls received a comprehensive assessment of working memory addressing the phonological loop (forward and backward digit span; word length and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS and an animal model of multiple sclerosis. We used high-field MR microscopy at 17.6 T to image spinal cord inflammatory lesions in the acute stage of chronic relapsing rat EAE. We sought to compare lesions detected on MR imaging with(More)
In the European Society of Cardiology-European Society of Hypertension guidelines of the year 2007, the consequences of arterial stiffness and wave reflection on cardiovascular mortality have a major role. But the investigators claimed the poor availability of devices/methods providing easy and widely suitable measuring of arterial wall stiffness or their(More)