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AIMS To assess the validity of the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND, six items) and of a short-form of this questionnaire, the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI, two items), in a population of relatively light smokers. DESIGN Comparison of item content with published definitions of addiction. Test-retest reliability and multiple tests of(More)
BACKGROUND Transmission of microorganisms from the hands of health care workers is the main source of cross-infection in hospitals and can be prevented by handwashing. OBJECTIVE To identify predictors of noncompliance with handwashing during routine patient care. DESIGN Observational study. SETTING Teaching hospital in Geneva, Switzerland. (More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the decay rate of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA and to identify factors associated with residual viral load in patients treated at the time of primary HIV-1 infection. PATIENTS A group of 15 patients adherent to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with sustained undetectable HIV-1 viremia for at least 24 months. (More)
BACKGROUND Stopping antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 infection can reduce costs and side-effects, but carries the risk of increased immune suppression and emergence of resistance. METHODS 430 patients with CD4-positive T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts greater than 350 cells per muL, and viral load less than 50 copies per mL were randomised to(More)
Factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin G20210A (FIIG20210A) mutations are associated with a higher risk of miscarriage: we sought to understand whether this association differs by clinical time of unexplained miscarriage, and by ethnic origin, among women with no previous thrombotic episode, during the first intended pregnancy. We performed a case-control(More)
OBJECTIVE Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) doubles the chances that a smoker will quit smoking, but most smokers who attempt to quit do not use it at all or only use it inconsistently. We aimed to identify attitudes of smokers and ex-smokers toward NRT and to develop and assess the validity of a brief scale used to measure these attitudes. METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate an experimental heroin maintenance programme. DESIGN Randomised trial. SETTING Outpatient clinic in Geneva, Switzerland. SUBJECTS Heroin addicts recruited from the community who were socially marginalised and in poor health and had failed in at least two previous drug treatments. INTERVENTION Patients in the experimental(More)
IMPORTANCE The clinical benefit of adding a macrolide to a β-lactam for empirical treatment of moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To test noninferiority of a β-lactam alone compared with a β-lactam and macrolide combination in moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
To derive a brief bedside pressure ulcer prediction tool for patients admitted to acute care hospitals, we conducted a prospective study of first pressure ulcer incidence among 1,190 consecutive patients hospitalized in selected wards of a Swiss teaching hospital. Baseline predictors included patient age and items from the Norton and Braden ulcer prediction(More)