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The 1968 Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) sleep scoring manual was published 15 years after REM sleep was discovered. Advances in the ensuing 28 years warranted a re-look at visual scoring of sleep stages. This paper describes the work of the AASM Visual Scoring Task Force, including methodology, a literature review and the rationale behind the new rules.(More)
Although mammals of different species have different sleep patterns, brief sleep-wake transitions commonly are observed across species and appear to occur randomly throughout the sleeping period. The dynamical patterns and functions of these brief awakenings from sleep are not well understood, and they often are viewed as disruptions (random or pathologic)(More)
An automated classification algorithm is presented which processes short-duration epochs of surface electrocardiogram data derived from polysomnography studies, and determines whether an epoch is from a period of sleep disordered respiration (SDR) or normal respiration (NR). The epoch lengths considered were 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 s. Epochs were labeled(More)
– We study the dynamics of the awakening during the night for healthy subjects and find that the wake and the sleep periods exhibit completely different behavior: the durations of wake periods are characterized by a scale-free power-law distribution, while the durations of sleep periods have an exponential distribution with a characteristic time scale. We(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Breath-to-breath variability is not purely random but is, instead, characterized by correlations on short- and long-term scales. Short-term correlations might reflect intact metabolic-control mechanisms. To investigate whether the higher variability of breathing during rapid eye movement (REM) compared to non-REM (NREM) sleep is of random(More)
Sleep science and respiratory engineering as medical subspecialties and research areas grew up side-by-side with biomedical engineering. The formation of EMBS in the 1950's and the discovery of REM sleep in the 1950's led to parallel development and interaction of sleep and biomedical engineering in diagnostics and therapeutics.
Sleep has been regarded as a testing situation for the autonomic nervous system, because its activity is modulated by sleep stages. Sleep-related breathing disorders also influence the autonomic nervous system and can cause heart rate changes known as cyclical variation. We investigated the effect of sleep stages and sleep apnea on autonomic activity by(More)
This paper presents a method for the discovery of temporal patterns in multivariate time series and their conversion into a linguistic knowledge representation applied to sleep-related breathing disorders. The main idea lies in introducing several abstraction levels that allow a step-wise identification of temporal patterns. Self-organizing neural networks(More)
This study proposes an alternative evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) based on ECG signal during sleep time. OSA is a common sleep disorder produced by repetitive occlusions in the upper airways. This respiratory disturbance produces a specific pattern on ECG. Extraction of ECG characteristics, as Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and peak R area,(More)
We study correlation properties of the magnitude and the sign of the increments in the time intervals between successive heartbeats during light sleep, deep sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep using the detrended fluctuation analysis method. We find short-range anticorrelations in the sign time series, which are strong during deep sleep, weaker during(More)