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The 1968 Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) sleep scoring manual was published 15 years after REM sleep was discovered. Advances in the ensuing 28 years warranted a re-look at visual scoring of sleep stages. This paper describes the work of the AASM Visual Scoring Task Force, including methodology, a literature review and the rationale behind the new rules.(More)
Healthy sleep consists of several stages: deep sleep, light sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here we show that these sleep stages can be characterized and distinguished by correlations of heart rates separated by n beats. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) up to fourth order we find that long-range correlations reminiscent to the wake(More)
Although mammals of different species have different sleep patterns, brief sleep-wake transitions commonly are observed across species and appear to occur randomly throughout the sleeping period. The dynamical patterns and functions of these brief awakenings from sleep are not well understood, and they often are viewed as disruptions (random or pathologic)(More)
How did the study come about? Although in the past century mortality in West Germany decreased similarly as in other Western nations, these changes were less pronounced in East Germany. 1,2 After German reunification in 1990, there was a lack of scientifically valid data from East Germany to explain the regional differences in life expectancy and,(More)
Sleep apnoea is a common disorder that is usually diagnosed through expensive studies conducted in sleep laboratories. Sleep apnoea is accompanied by a characteristic cyclic variation in heart rate or other changes in the waveform of the electrocardiogram (ECG). If sleep apnoea could be diagnosed using only the ECG, it could be possible to diagnose sleep(More)
Sleep has been regarded as a testing situation for the autonomic nervous system, because its activity is modulated by sleep stages. Sleep-related breathing disorders also influence the autonomic nervous system and can cause heart rate changes known as cyclical variation. We investigated the effect of sleep stages and sleep apnea on autonomic activity by(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch in subjects with moderate to severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement (PLM) in sleep in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study (NCT00275236). METHODS Sixty-seven (46 rotigotine, 21 placebo) subjects applied rotigotine (maximum(More)
Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder with a high prevalence in the adult male population. Sleep apnea is regarded as an independent risk factor,for cardiovascular sequelae such as ischemic heart attacks and stroke. The diagnosis of sleep apnea requires polysomnographic studies in sleep laboratories with expensive equipment and attending personnel. Sleep apnea(More)
To date, the only standard for the classification of sleep-EEG recordings that has found worldwide acceptance are the rules published in 1968 by Rechtschaffen and Kales. Even though several attempts have been made to automate the classification process, so far no method has been published that has proven its validity in a study including a sufficiently(More)