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The 1968 Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) sleep scoring manual was published 15 years after REM sleep was discovered. Advances in the ensuing 28 years warranted a re-look at visual scoring of sleep stages. This paper describes the work of the AASM Visual Scoring Task Force, including methodology, a literature review and the rationale behind the new rules.(More)
Although mammals of different species have different sleep patterns, brief sleep-wake transitions commonly are observed across species and appear to occur randomly throughout the sleeping period. The dynamical patterns and functions of these brief awakenings from sleep are not well understood, and they often are viewed as disruptions (random or pathologic)(More)
ii iii iv v PREFACE The human species as conscious creatures seem to have something special, namely a particular organ-the brain-which can connect matter (physical entity) and mind (purely non-physical) to each other in both directions. For example, humans can assign a meaning to a physical entity; and they can also transform ideas into facts of the(More)
Sleep apnoea is a common disorder that is usually diagnosed through expensive studies conducted in sleep laboratories. Sleep apnoea is accompanied by a characteristic cyclic variation in heart rate or other changes in the waveform of the electrocardiogram (ECG). If sleep apnoea could be diagnosed using only the ECG, it could be possible to diagnose sleep(More)
Healthy sleep consists of several stages: deep sleep, light sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here we show that these sleep stages can be characterized and distinguished by correlations of heart rates separated by n beats. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) up to fourth order we find that long-range correlations reminiscent to the wake(More)
Sleep has been regarded as a testing situation for the autonomic nervous system, because its activity is modulated by sleep stages. Sleep-related breathing disorders also influence the autonomic nervous system and can cause heart rate changes known as cyclical variation. We investigated the effect of sleep stages and sleep apnea on autonomic activity by(More)
– We study the dynamics of the awakening during the night for healthy subjects and find that the wake and the sleep periods exhibit completely different behavior: the durations of wake periods are characterized by a scale-free power-law distribution, while the durations of sleep periods have an exponential distribution with a characteristic time scale. We(More)
BACKGROUND Open clinical trials indicate that low doses of pergolide, a long-acting D1 and D2 dopamine agonist, lead to a reduction in the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with subjective improvement in sleep quality. OBJECTIVE To assess the therapeutic efficacy of pergolide in improving sleep and subjective measures of well-being in patients with(More)
An open follow-up of a controlled study in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) shows that the beneficial effect of pergolide on RLS symptoms persists throughout at least 1 year. Twenty-two patients of 28 (78.6%) continued to take pergolide. Polysomnographic measurements showed a persistent improvement of PLM index, PLMS arousal index, total sleep(More)
The orexin system is a key regulator of sleep and wakefulness. In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study, 161 primary insomnia patients received either the dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant, at 400, 200, 100, or 50 mg in consecutive stages, or placebo on treatment nights at 1-week intervals. The primary(More)