Thomas Penzel

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The 1968 Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) sleep scoring manual was published 15 years after REM sleep was discovered. Advances in the ensuing 28 years warranted a re-look at visual scoring of sleep stages. This paper describes the work of the AASM Visual Scoring Task Force, including methodology, a literature review and the rationale behind the new rules.(More)
Although mammals of different species have different sleep patterns, brief sleep-wake transitions commonly are observed across species and appear to occur randomly throughout the sleeping period. The dynamical patterns and functions of these brief awakenings from sleep are not well understood, and they often are viewed as disruptions (random or pathologic)(More)
ii iii iv v PREFACE The human species as conscious creatures seem to have something special, namely a particular organ-the brain-which can connect matter (physical entity) and mind (purely non-physical) to each other in both directions. For example, humans can assign a meaning to a physical entity; and they can also transform ideas into facts of the(More)
Sleep has been regarded as a testing situation for the autonomic nervous system, because its activity is modulated by sleep stages. Sleep-related breathing disorders also influence the autonomic nervous system and can cause heart rate changes known as cyclical variation. We investigated the effect of sleep stages and sleep apnea on autonomic activity by(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for arterial hypertension. Because there are no controlled studies showing a substantial effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy on hypertension in OSA, the impact of treatment on cardiovascular sequelae has been questioned(More)
– We study the dynamics of the awakening during the night for healthy subjects and find that the wake and the sleep periods exhibit completely different behavior: the durations of wake periods are characterized by a scale-free power-law distribution, while the durations of sleep periods have an exponential distribution with a characteristic time scale. We(More)
Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder with a high prevalence in the adult male population. Sleep apnea is regarded as an independent risk factor,for cardiovascular sequelae such as ischemic heart attacks and stroke. The diagnosis of sleep apnea requires polysomnographic studies in sleep laboratories with expensive equipment and attending personnel. Sleep apnea(More)
Cohort Profile: The Study of Health in Pomerania Henry Völzke, y Dietrich Alte,1y Carsten Oliver Schmidt, Dörte Radke, Roberto Lorbeer, Nele Friedrich, Nicole Aumann, Katharina Lau, Michael Piontek, Gabriele Born, Christoph Havemann, Till Ittermann, Sabine Schipf, Robin Haring, Sebastian E Baumeister, Henri Wallaschofski, Matthias Nauck, Stephanie Frick,(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoglossal nerve stimulation has been demonstrated to relieve upper airway obstruction acutely, but its effect on obstructive sleep apnea is not known. OBJECTIVE To determine the response in obstructive sleep apnea to electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve. METHODS Eight patients with obstructive sleep apnea were implanted with a(More)