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The hippocampus is crucial for spatial memory formation, yet it does not store long-lasting memories. By combining functional brain imaging and region-specific neuronal inactivation in mice, we identified prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices as critical for storage and retrieval of remote spatial memories [correction]. Imaging of activity-dependent(More)
Behavioural studies in both humans and animals have shown that an acute rise in circulating glucose levels at or around the time of training enhances subsequent retention performance and can also afford protection from the amnesia produced by posttraining injections of scopolamine. In an attempt to directly investigate the neurochemical basis for these(More)
In order to study the functional role of the trans-synaptic neuronal interaction between glutamatergic afferents and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons in internal reward processes, BALB/c male mice were unilaterally implanted with a guide-cannula, the tip of which was positioned 1.5 mm above the ventral tegmental area (VTA). On each day of the following(More)
A 5-arm maze was used to measure sustained visuo-spatial attention in C57Bl/6 mice and test the hypothesis of differential functional roles for central nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in mediating task performance. Mice were first trained to acquire the basic visual discrimination task in which, on each trial, one randomly chosen arm among the five open(More)
The effect of a 3 g/kg glucose injection on the velocity of the sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake mechanism in the hippocampus was both measured in quiet control mice and in mice immediately after training in an operant bar pressing task. Glucose did not significantly change high-affinity choline uptake in resting animals. High-affinity choline(More)
An unequal decrease in cholinergic activity has been evidenced in discrete brain areas in the growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin deficient Snell dwarf mouse. The effect of the mutation's pituitary deficit on central cholinergic mechanisms appears to be selective: Normally high cholinergic activity areas such as striatum, olfactory(More)
A 5-arm maze has been developed to provide parallel tests of sustained visuo-spatial attention and spatial working memory in mice. C57Bl/6 mice were trained to select, either by immediate response (attention) or by delayed-matching response (working memory), one target arm among the five open arms. For attention testing, mice were first trained to acquire(More)
This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events(More)
Results are presented from the first underground data run of ZEPLIN-II, a 31 kg two-phase xenon detector developed to observe nuclear recoils from hypothetical weakly interacting massive dark matter particles. Discrimination between nuclear recoils and background electron recoils is afforded by recording both the scintillation and ionisation signals(More)
A neurochemical study of the transsynaptic interactions established between septal GABAergic interneurones and cholinergic septo-hippocampal neurones was conducted using mice. The effects of acute in vivo injections of either muscimol (20-500 ng/0.2 microliter), bicuculline (100 ng-1 micrograms/0.2 microliter) or saline vehicle (0.2 microliter) into the(More)