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We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome.(More)
We have analyzed the maize leaf transcriptome using Illumina sequencing. We mapped more than 120 million reads to define gene structure and alternative splicing events and to quantify transcript abundance along a leaf developmental gradient and in mature bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. We detected differential mRNA processing events for most maize genes.(More)
We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to(More)
Dietary vitamin A deficiency causes eye disease in 40 million children each year and places 140 to 250 million at risk for health disorders. Many children in sub-Saharan Africa subsist on maize-based diets. Maize displays considerable natural variation for carotenoid composition, including vitamin A precursors alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and(More)
Setaria italica and its wild ancestor Setaria viridis are diploid C(4) grasses with small genomes of ∼515 Mb. Both species have attributes that make them attractive as model systems. Setaria italica is a grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India that is closely related to the major food and feed crops maize and sorghum. A large collection of S.(More)
The Bundle sheath defective2 (Bsd2) gene is required for ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) accumulation in maize. Using a Mutator transposable element as a molecular probe, we identified a tightly linked restriction fragment length polymorphism that cosegregated with the bsd2-conferred phenotype. This fragment was cloned, and(More)
Breeding to increase beta-carotene levels in cereal grains, termed provitamin A biofortification, is an economical approach to address dietary vitamin A deficiency in the developing world. Experimental evidence from association and linkage populations in maize (Zea mays L.) demonstrate that the gene encoding beta-carotene hydroxylase 1 (crtRB1) underlies a(More)
C(4) photosynthesis drives productivity in several major food crops and bioenergy grasses, including maize (Zea mays), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Miscanthus x giganteus, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Gains in productivity associated with C(4) photosynthesis include improved water and nitrogen use efficiencies. Thus,(More)
Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than 30 years of technological advances. Genome editing provides novel opportunities to enhance crop productivity but relies on genetic(More)
In recent years, several genetic components of vegetative axillary bud development have been defined in both monocots and eudicots, but our understanding of environmental inputs on branching remains limited. Recent work in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has revealed a role for phytochrome B (phyB) in the control of axillary bud outgrowth through the regulation(More)