Thomas Oxland

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The lumbar region is a frequent site of spinal disorders, including low-back pain, and of spinal trauma. Clinical studies have established that abnormal intervertebral motions occur in some patients who have low-back pain. A knowledge of normal spinal movements, with all of the inherent complexities, is needed as a baseline. The present study documents the(More)
Knowledge of the normal movements of whole lumbar spine and lumbosacral joint is important for evaluating clinical pathologic conditions that may potentially produce unstable situations in these regions. At present there are few studies that report systemic three-dimensional movement analysis of these regions. The purpose of this in vitro study was to(More)
In this study, the three-dimensional quantitative anatomy of middle and lower cervical vertebrae was determined. The three-dimensional coordinates of various marked points on the surface of the vertebra were measured with a specially designed morphometer instrument. From these coordinates, linear dimensions, angulations, and areas of surfaces and(More)
STUDY DESIGN An in vitro biomechanical investigation using human lumbar cadaveric spine specimens was undertaken to determine any relationship between intervertebral disc degeneration and nonlinear multidirectional spinal flexibility. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Previous clinical and biomechanical studies have not established conclusively such a(More)
The Dynesys, a flexible posterior stabilization system that provides an alternative to fusion, is designed to preserve intersegmental kinematics and alleviate loading at the facet joints. Recent biomechanical evidence suggests that the overall range of motion (ROM) with the Dynesys is less than the intact spine. The purpose of this investigation was to(More)
One goal of interbody fusion is to increase the height of the degenerated disc space. Interbody cages in particular have been promoted with the claim that they can maintain the disc space better than other methods. There are many factors that can affect the disc height maintenance, including graft or cage design, the quality of the surrounding bone and the(More)
STUDY DESIGN An in vitro biomechanical investigation in the human lumbar spine focuses on the functional significance of vertebral bone density and intervertebral disc degenerations. OBJECTIVE To determine that interrelationship between vertebral bone density and intervertebral disc degeneration, their effect on normal spine motion, and their significance(More)
This study details the quantitative three-dimensional surface anatomy of human lumbar vertebrae based on a study of 60 vertebrae. The two lower vertebrae (L4 and L5) appeared to be transitional toward the sacral region, whereas the upper two vertebrae (L1 and L2) were transitional toward the thoracic region. Means and standard errors of the means for(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal joint mobilization is a mainstay of clinical assessment of individuals with back pain. The clinician manually assesses stiffness and joint motion relative to segments above and below. Although clinical theory suggests that manually performed techniques can predict or detect intervertebral motion, this hypothesis remains untested. METHODS(More)