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In this paper, we present our reverse engineering results for the Zeus crimeware toolkit which is one of the recent and powerful crimeware tools that emerged in the Internet underground community to control botnets. Zeus has reportedly infected over 3.6 million computers in the United States. Our analysis aims at uncovering the various obfuscation levels(More)
Botnets have become one of the most prevailing threats to today's Internet partly due to the underlying economic incentives of operating one. Botnet toolkits sold by their authors allow any layman to generate his/her own customized botnet and become a botmaster; botnet services sold by botmasters allow any criminal to steal identities and credit card(More)
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