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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive developmental disorders with characteristic core symptoms such as impairments in social interaction, deviance in communication, repetitive and stereotyped behavior, and impaired motor skills. Anomalies of brain structure have repeatedly been hypothesized to play a major role in the etiopathogenesis of the(More)
Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder entailing progressive psychotic, cognitive and affective symptoms. Several imaging studies identified brain structure abnormalities in schizophrenia patients, particularly in fronto-temporal regions and evidence for progressive anatomical changes. Here, we synthesised these findings by quantitative(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to document the present situation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Germany, compare its handling with regard to other industrialized countries and with regard to a survey 12 years ago. METHODS A questionnaire on the frequency and type of administration of ECT in 2008 was sent electronically to 423 psychiatric(More)
Results on grey matter (GM) structural alterations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are inconclusive. Moreover, little is known about age effects on brain-structure abnormalities in ASD beyond childhood. Here, we aimed to examine regional GM volumes in a large sample of children, adolescents, and adults with ASD. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were(More)
Lactate dehydrogenase type A (LDH-A) is a key metabolic enzyme catalyzing pyruvate into lactate and is excessively expressed by tumor cells. Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) is a key regulator of invasion in high-grade gliomas, partially by inducing a mesenchymal phenotype and by remodeling the extracellular matrix. In this study, we tested the(More)
Versican is a large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan produced by several tumour cell types, including high-grade glioma. The increased expression of certain versican isoforms in the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a role in tumour cell growth, adhesion and migration. Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) is an important modulator of glioma(More)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an acquired syndrome characterised by cognitive decline not affecting activities of daily living. Using a quantitative meta-analytic approach, we aimed to identify consistent neuroanatomic correlates of MCI and how they are related to cognitive dysfunction. The meta-analysis enrols 22 studies, involving 917 MCI (848(More)
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) play a key role in neuronal protection. They exert this function by metabolizing biogenic amine-related aldehydes, e.g. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), and by protecting neurons against aldehyde- and oxidative stress-related neurotoxicity. The role of these different isoenzymes has been discussed in other(More)