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Schaffer collaterals of rat and mouse hippocampal slices were stimulated with bursts of pulses (300 Hz for 50 ms, 2-s intervals) for 30-s which caused a stable increase in the size of the population spike known as long-term potentiation. The release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was measured with a luciferase-luciferine system and the light emitted was(More)
Brain tumours lack metabolic versatility and are dependent largely on glucose for energy. This contrasts with normal brain tissue that can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies. We examined for the first time the potential efficacy of dietary therapies that reduce plasma glucose and elevate ketone bodies in the CT-2A syngeneic malignant mouse(More)
GM1 gangliosidosis is a glycosphingolipid (GSL) lysosomal storage disease caused by a genetic deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), the enzyme that catabolyzes GM1 within lysosomes. Accumulation of GM1 and its asialo form (GA1) occurs primarily in the brain, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and brain dysfunction. Substrate reduction(More)
Biochemical studies have indicated that the disialoganglioside, GD3, is a major glycolipid component of the immature vertebrate CNS, but a minor element within the mature CNS. We have investigated its cellular localization in rat CNS by immunofluorescence using a mouse monoclonal antibody that recognizes GD3. In tissue sections of postnatal CNS, the(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare X-linked autistic-spectrum neurological disorder associated with impaired energy metabolism, seizure susceptibility, progressive social behavioral regression, and motor impairment primarily in young girls. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of restricted diets, including a ketogenic diet (KD) and a(More)
Diet and lifestyle produce major effects on tumour incidence, prevalence, and natural history. Moderate dietary restriction has long been recognised as a natural therapy that improves health, promotes longevity, and reduces both the incidence and growth of many tumour types. Dietary restriction differs from fasting or starvation by reducing total food and(More)
The major neutral and acidic cerebellar lipids were studied in audiogenic seizure (AGS)-resistant C57BL/6 (B6) and AGS-susceptible DBA/2J (D2) mice. These cerebellar lipids were also studied in the D2.B6- Iasb congenic mice and in the B6D2F1 hybrids that are mostly AGS resistant. Except for the Iasb gene, which inhibits AGS susceptibility, the D2.B6- Iasb(More)
Most malignant brain tumours contain various numbers of cells with characteristics of activated or dysmorphic macrophages/microglia. These cells are generally considered part of the tumour stroma and are often described as TAM (tumour-associated macrophages). These types of cells are thought to either enhance or inhibit brain tumour progression. Recent(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that many metastatic cancers arise from cells of the myeloid/macrophage lineage regardless of the primary tissue of origin. A myeloid origin of metastatic cancer stands apart from origins involving clonal evolution or epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Evidence is reviewed demonstrating that numerous human cancers express(More)