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Emerging evidence indicates that impaired cellular energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of nearly all cancers regardless of cellular or tissue origin. In contrast to normal cells, which derive most of their usable energy from oxidative phosphorylation, most cancer cells become heavily dependent on substrate level phosphorylation to meet energy(More)
Biochemical studies have indicated that the disialoganglioside, GD3, is a major glycolipid component of the immature vertebrate CNS, but a minor element within the mature CNS. We have investigated its cellular localization in rat CNS by immunofluorescence using a mouse monoclonal antibody that recognizes GD3. In tissue sections of postnatal CNS, the(More)
Schaffer collaterals of rat and mouse hippocampal slices were stimulated with bursts of pulses (300 Hz for 50 ms, 2-s intervals) for 30-s which caused a stable increase in the size of the population spike known as long-term potentiation. The release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was measured with a luciferase-luciferine system and the light emitted was(More)
Brain cells are metabolically flexible because they can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate). Metabolic control theory applies principles of bioenergetics and genome flexibility to the management of complex phenotypic traits. Epilepsy is a complex brain disorder involving excessive, synchronous, abnormal(More)
The enrichment of gangliosides in neuronal membranes suggests that they play an important role in CNS development. We recently found a marked tetrasialoganglioside deficiency in twl/twl mutant mouse embryos at embryonic day (E)-11. The recessive twl/twl mutants die at embryonic ages E-9 to E-18 from failed neural differentiation in the ventral portion of(More)
The neurological mutant mouse strain E1 is a model for complex partial seizures in humans. The inheritance of epileptic seizures with seven conventional chromosomal markers and over 60 endogenous proviral markers was studied by means of back-crosses of E1 with two seizure-resistant strains, DBA/2J and ABP/LeJ. The major gene responsible for this epileptic(More)
Itaconic acid (ITA), or methylenesuccinic acid, is not generally classified as a mammalian metabolite. Using NMR-based metabolomics and (13)C-labeling, we have detected ITA in both macrophage-like VM-M3 and RAW 264.7 tumor cell lines as well as stimulated and unstimulated primary murine macrophages. Macrophage activation by addition of lipopolysaccharide(More)
Diet and lifestyle produce major effects on tumour incidence, prevalence, and natural history. Moderate dietary restriction has long been recognised as a natural therapy that improves health, promotes longevity, and reduces both the incidence and growth of many tumour types. Dietary restriction differs from fasting or starvation by reducing total food and(More)
Brain tumours lack metabolic versatility and are dependent largely on glucose for energy. This contrasts with normal brain tissue that can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies. We examined for the first time the potential efficacy of dietary therapies that reduce plasma glucose and elevate ketone bodies in the CT-2A syngeneic malignant mouse(More)
Intracranial transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) delayed disease onset, preserved motor function, reduced pathology and prolonged survival in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease, a lethal gangliosidosis. Although donor-derived neurons were electrophysiologically active within chimeric regions, the small degree of neuronal replacement alone could not(More)